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Andrejs Plakans
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Index

Ābele, Alfrēds 583
Ābele, Kārlis 372, 575
Ābers, Benno 336
Abula, Biruta 413, 563, 593
Academy of Sciences 554
Acta Baltica 152
activism 276, 342, 420, 471
local 214
refugee 95, 107, 177
adaptation xiv, 364, 365, 527
assimilation xvii, xix, 87, 153, 172, 265, 342, 351, 353
expected 270
on trial 393
pārtautošanās (nationality change) 344, 350
Agrarian Party 157
Aigars, Pēteris 166, 343
Aizsilnieks, Arnold 520
Akmentiņš, Osvalds 272
Amalrik, Andrei 495
American Latvian Assn. for Humanistic Sciences 303, 350
American Latvian Association (ALA) 213, 216, 222, 246, 275, 280, 327, 403, 405, 419, 420, 463, 474, 481, 482, 488, 515, 553, 631, 667, 669, 680
American Latvian Youth Association (ALJA) 217, 312, 369
Andersons, Edgars 517, 534, 591
Andrups, Jānis 162, 166, 431
Annus, Augusts 521
anti-clericalism 33, 328
Arājs Kommando 26, 148, 235
Arājs, Viktors 148-149
Armitstead, George 161
Aspāzija (Elza Rozenberga) 171
Assembly of Captive European Nations (ACEN) 428
Association for the Advancement of Baltic Studies (AABS) 430, 542
Association of Latvian Doctors and Dentists 568
Association of Latvian Engineers 303
Association of Latvian Fraternities 280
Association of Latvian University Teachers and Scientists 302
Association of Latvian Writers 304
Austrian-Latvian Society 147
Babre, Janīna 330, 520
Balcers, V. 338
Balodis, Kārlis 234
Balt Cygnet 161
Baltaks, Jānis 350
Baltic Appeal to the United Nations (BATUN) 428, 549
Baltic Council 428
Baltic German resettlement 151
Baltic Institute, University of Stockholm 431
Baltic Studies Association of Australia 431
Baltic University 111, 301
Baltic World Conference 428
Baltische Historische Komission (BHK) 152, 431
Bangerskis, Rudolfs 45, 56, 97, 150
Baptists 204, 234, 324
Barricade Days 559
Baumanis, Artūrs 329
Bergs, Kārlis 238
Bērziņa, Lūcija 416, 422, 477, 486
Bērziņa-Baltiņa, Valerija 410
Bērziņš, Alfrēds 463
Bērziņš, Ludis 241
Bibliography of Latvian Publications Published Outside Latvia 510
Bičolis, Jānis 120, 243, 246, 520
Biezais, Haralds 25, 85, 327
Bīlmanis, Alfreds 28, 178, 267, 336
Birkerts, Gunārs 582, 642
Birkerts, Sven 401
Blaumanis, Rudolfs 160
Blese, Ernests 346
Blumbergs, Pēteris 667
Bolsheviks 26, 31, 34, 146
Brazilian Latvian National Assn. 235
Brubaker, Rogers 662
Budulis, Hermanis 201
Bukšs, Miķelis 153
Bulmanis, Nikolajs 409, 525, 533
Canadian National Association of Young Latvians (LNJAK) 369
Catholic Church 109, 168, 171, 180, 182, 233, 323
Catholic Relief Services 140, 209
Cečinš, Jānis 668
Celle, Māra 577, 593, 633
Celle, Ojārs 581
Celmiņš, Vija 525
Center for Migration and Diaspora Research 673
Central Latvian Council 405
chaos theory 676
choral groups 109, 112, 164, 215
Cielēns, Fēlikss 84, 86
Cold War 146, 342
collegium of Latvian diplomats 178-180
Commentationes Balticae 152
Committee for Cultural Relations with Compatriots Abroad . Riga Committee
Communist Party, Latvian SSR 4, 9, 11, 14, 150, 315, 440, 447, 556
Communist Party, Soviet Union 9, 33, 65, 129, 440
counter-propaganda 453
Courland, Duke Jacob of 234
Courland Kettle 18, 27
credit associations 227
Cukurs, Herberts 235
Culture Days in Australia 232, 523
Dangavs, Tālivaldis 238
Dardedze 464
Daugavas Vanagi 97, 106, 157, 168, 183-184, 273, 368, 406, 420, 553, 566
chapters 147, 160, 163, 167, 215, 226, 233
founding 76
Latvian Welfare Fund 163, 165
womens auxiliary 275
Day of Remembrance of the Deported (June 13) 145, 330
De Karvalho Albrehta, Renāte 668
deportations 12, 14, 35, 145, 441
diaspora 589, 614, 648
concept xiv, 670
Diaspora Law 656, 657, 667
dievturi movement 328
displaced persons (DPs) xv, 71, 77, 208
self referential term 79
Displaced Persons Act of 1948 (US) 140, 209
DP camps xviii
auxiliary labor-and-guard units 93
black-market 104
civil society 107, 115
dissolution 140
economics 101
emigration from 90
Esslingen 109, 112, 120
forced repatriation visits 77
IRO closing 132
publications 114
regulations 88
schools 109-111
specialized groups 113
sports teams 113
theatre troupes 113, 122
three types 74
Dreimanis, Pēteris 266
Dripe, Andrejs 443-444
Dunsdorfa, Lilija 511, 521
Dunsdorfs, Edgars 84, 336, 350, 352-356, 370, 388, 397, 407, 416-417, 420, 469, 527, 535, 544, 554, 561, 591
Dzediņš, Teodors 87
Dziļleja, Kārlis 117, 142
Dzintars, Paulis 505-506
East Germany . German Democratic Republic
Eastland (Baltic) Company 161
Eglītis, Alberts 595
Eglītis, Andrejs 87, 357, 435, 532, 536
Eglītis, Anšlavs 72, 304, 307, 309, 425, 462, 526
Ekmanis, Rolfs 482, 541
Elferts, Pēteris Kārlis 627
emigration, pre-WWI waves 211
encyclopedias 522
Latviešu konversācijas vārdnīca 159, 264
Latvju enciklopēdija 83, 159, 220, 261, 355, 514, 517, 538
Latvju enciklopēdija supplement 278, 356
Endzelīns, Jānis 304, 520
Ērmanis, Pēteris 150, 412
Esperanto 143
eugenics movement 272
European Association of Young Latvians (ELJA) 369, 403
European Center for Latvian Renewal 275
European Latvian Association 668, 681
European Union 599
European Voluntary Workers (EVWs) 162
Ezergailis, Inta 494
fatalism 40
Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) 145
Feldmanis, Jūlijs 178, 216, 246
folkloric material 118
forest brothers 30, 441
fraternities 217, 227, 300, 566
interfraternity council 301, 425
Lettonia 300
unified membership 301
Freimanis, Jānis 639
Frišvalds, Jānis 470
Gailīte, Angelika 227
Geikins, Ārijs 443
generational dissonance 358
German Democratic Republic (GDR) 146
Ģērmanis, Uldis 85, 461
Glück, Ernst 329
Gotland, island of 46, 48
Graube, Pēteris 479
Grava, Uldis 403, 405, 548
Great Departure TV series 602
Great Dispersion xviii, 140, 145, 148, 154
Grebzde, Irma 227, 306
Grigulis, Arvīds 196
Grīnbergs, Teodors 109, 149, 323
Grīns, Aleksandrs 234
Grīns, Ervins 416, 526
Grīns, Jānis 84, 286
Grīslis, Egīls 327
Grots, Andris 576
Gudrā, Marisa 631
Gulbis, Fricis 97
Gūtmane, Margita 415, 524
Hauzenberga-Šturma, Edīte 520
Hazans, Mihaels 672
Hells Kitchen Group 304, 487
holidays Latvians observe 502
Holocaust in Latvia 16, 68
humpala 568
Ieleja, Kārlis 243
intelligentsia xiv, 116-119, 121-123, 144, 156, 527
Interfront 552
intermarriage (exogamy) 86, 156, 169, 173, 236, 272, 351, 353, 370
International Refugee Organization (IRO) 88, 132, 135, 137, 200
Irbe, Gunārs 259, 381, 382
Iron Curtain 88, 129
Īvans, Dainis 553
Ivaska, Astrīde 435, 636
Janelsiņa, Veronika 72, 307
Janovskis, Gunārs 106, 167, 250, 306, 369, 525, 543
Jansone, Astrīda 624
Jaunsudrabiņš, Jānis 72, 123, 149, 241, 306, 519
Jaunzeme, Ausma 391
Jeckeln, Gov. Gen. Friedrich 42
Jēgers, Benjamiņš 322, 500, 510, 554, 591
Jerumanis, Aivars 580
Jews 13, 15, 17, 26
antisemitic propaganda about 26, 203
concentration camps 20
Riga ghetto 20
stereotyping 203
Johansons, Andrejs 84, 520
Jurevičs, Pauls 69, 138, 142, 174, 192, 193, 197, 265, 271, 346, 352, 390, 421, 520
Kalmīte, Jānis 291
Kalniete, Sandra 14
Kalniņš, Jānis 228
Kalniņš, Nikolajs 221, 306, 349, 593-594
Kalniņš, Ojārs 581, 671
Kalniņs, Viktors 550
Kangere, Baiba 409, 608
Kariņš, Krišjānis 644
Kārkliņš, Valdemārs 382
Karps, Ansis 349
kartoteka (database of DPs) 91, 136, 183, 570
Kažociņs, Indulis 412, 423, 478
Keggi, Kristaps 553, 582
Ķeksis, Arnis 513
Ķēniņš, Tālivaldis 228
Ķēniņš-King, Gundars 582
Kersten, Charles 440
Ķiķauka, Tālivaldis 393, 454
Kirchenšteins, Augusts 9
Klāns, Pāvils 461
Klīdzējs, Jānis 116, 153, 221, 306, 364, 386
Klīve, Visvaldis 327, 345, 398, 427
Krāslavietis, Valdis 140
Kreicbergs, Toms 609
Krusa, Felīks 128
Kukura, Ilona 352
Kundziņš, Kārlis 97
Kundziņš, Pauls 520
Kurelis, Jānis 29-30
Kursīte, Janīna 291
Kviesis, Alberts 9
labor camps (hostels) 163-164
Labsvīrs, Jānis 612
Lācis, Jūlijs 234
Lāčplēsis (national epic) Jauna Gaita parody 313
Lāčplēsis Day (November 11) 330
Lappuķe, Rolands 530, 537, 627
Latgale 152-153, 285
Latvian Academic Society 157
Latvian American Shipping Line 594
Latvian Assistance Committee 157
Latvian Association of Australia and New Zealand 231, 275, 404, 488, 667
Latvian Association of University Faculty & Scientists 535
Latvian Central Committee 28, 46, 91, 97, 110, 129, 153, 154
Latvian Central Council 147, 149, 157, 268
Latvian Congress in Russia (KLK) 668
Latvian Legion 56, 89, 150, 163
15th Division 17, 18, 28, 54, 55, 368
19th Division 17, 18, 27, 29, 55
conscription 26
creation 17
ex-POWs 94
forced repatriation 51, 81, 90
POWs 75-76
veterans 325
Latvian National Association in Canada 227, 275, 404, 405, 488, 667
Latvian National Committee 96
Latvian National Council 97, 157, 163, 164, 216, 280, 405
Latvian National Foundation 157, 159, 280, 435, 536
Latvian National Youth Association in Canada 227
Latvian Popular Front (LPF) 551
Latvian Press Association 114, 280, 304, 317, 492
Latvian Society of Engineers 280, 508
Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (LSSR) 2, 9, 14, 129, 144, 285, 305, 311, 439
Latvian Welfare Fund . Daugavas Vanagi
Latvian Writers Association 492
Latvianness xvi, 66, 83, 88, 108, 119, 125, 131, 142, 154, 173, 279, 300, 312, 329, 344, 352, 356, 414, 480, 489, 494, 525, 562, 632
generational transmission 392
Latvieša stāja svešumā (Bearing of a Latvian in Exile) 98, 129, 268, 342
Latvijas Ceļš 579
Lazda, Paulis 643
Lazda, Zinaīda 520
Lazdiņa, Terēze 595
League of Nations 144
Leimane, Ilona 168
Lejiņš, Atis 556, 578
Lejiņš, Pēteris 216, 277, 403
Lelis, Jāzeps 490
Lesiņš, Knuts 99, 309
Lešinskis, Imants 458, 543, 547
Levits, Egīls 555, 579, 675
Līce, Anda 606
Lielnors, Harijs 210
Liepiņš, Guntis 253
Liepkalns, Artūrs 391
Locis, Vladislavs 153
Lūsis, Arnolds 326, 493
Lutheran Church in Exile 108, 149, 180-182, 273, 323
calendar 329
clergy 167, 210, 327, 652
confirmation 326, 366
congregations 155, 214, 233, 324
facsimile of first Bible 329
hierarchy 109
hymnal 329
Manfelde, Andra 609
Manion, Clarence 440
Mantnieks, Pēteris 168
Mauriņa, Zenta 84, 174, 306, 519
Mazutis, Juris 261, 415, 533
Meierovics, Gunārs 553, 579, 580
Metuzāle-Kangere, Baiba 409, 608
Mežaks, Jānis 382
mežubrāļi (forest brothers) 30, 441
Mieriņš, Laimonis 565
Miezis, Imants 652
Moravian Brethren 328
Muižniece-Liepiņa, Sarma 671
Muižnieks, Nīls 581, 638, 643
Muktupāvela, Laima 609
Münster gymnasium (high school) 154, 297, 397, 426
Murāns, Kārlis 117
National Council in Great Britain 405
national identity 66, 67, 91, 118, 126, 127, 143, 151, 212, 265, 266, 413, 418
Nesaule, Agate 634
newspapers 158, 316, 321
Austrālijas Latvietis 232, 260, 316, 418, 491, 596
Brīvā Latvija 596, 625
Jaunākās Ziņas 7
Laiks 99, 219, 317, 321, 340, 363, 408, 418, 462, 566, 596, 625, 671
Latvian Press Association 114
Latviešu Vēstnesis 114
Latvietis 625, 631
Latvija 316, 385
Latvija Amerikā 227, 317, 321, 392, 418, 496, 550
Latvijas Balss 54, 58
Latvju Vārds 316, 321
Latvju Ziņas 158, 284, 316, 321
Londonas Avīze 165, 166, 258, 263, 316, 338, 343, 418
post-1945 Soviet Latvian Cīņa, Sovietskaya Latvya, and Padomju Jaunātne 192, 437
Tēvzeme 114
Niedra, Aīda 306, 519
NKVD (Soviet police & secret police) 10, 13
Nollendorfs, Valters 357, 376, 465, 492, 588, 641
non-recognition policy 1, 89, 259, 333
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) 146, 209, 599
occupation
first Soviet (1940-41) 1, 6-15
German evacuation plans 41
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact 6, 8, 151, 551
Nazi Germany (1941-44) 2, 15-20
Occupation Museum 643
Ostland 16, 19, 41, 151
Pauls, Raimonds 567, 572
Pavasars, Bruno 169
Pāvils Klāns 462
Pavlovskis, Oļģerts 436, 580
Pavlovskis, Valdis 492, 580
PBLA . World Federation of Free Latvians
peaceful coexistence 342
Pelēcis, Valentīns 314
Pelše, Arvīds 197, 445, 449
PEN club of Latvia 157
Peniķis, Jānis 466
periodicals 158, 318
Akadēmiskā Dzīve 302, 319, 372, 596
Archīvs 319, 350, 352, 388, 396, 398, 405, 407, 418, 420, 469, 477, 478, 495, 527, 547, 561, 597
Books Abroad, World Literature Today 429
Ceļa Biedrs 329
Ceļa Zīmes 158, 166, 285, 346, 418
Ceļš 114
Čikāgas Ziņas 551
Jaunā Gaita 217, 312, 319, 418, 462, 481, 517, 547, 562, 596, 614, 625, 630, 639
Journal of Baltic Studies 430
Laiks 105, 114, 128, 142, 193, 268
Latvija 237, 418
Latvija Šodien 541, 547
Latvju Mēnešraksts 20
Latvju Vārds 87
Latvju Ziņas 201
Mēs 347, 349, 412
Tilts 309, 435
Treji Vārti 418, 479, 492, 495, 512
Trimdas Skola 296, 319, 412
Universitas 302, 319, 418
Perkonkrusts (radical right wing) 23
philanthropies
ALA Cultural Foundation 425
Fatherland Fund 425
Freedom Fund (PBLA) 425
Latvian Freedom Fund (PBLA) 425
Latvian Fund 425
Latvian National Foundation 425
Pinto, Elīna 668
Plan for the Renewal of Latvia 529
Plaude, Artūrs 412
Plensners, Aleksandrs 521
poetry 305
popular culture 111, 145
Poruks, Jānis 160
POW camps 71, 75, 146
Cedelghem, Belgium 75, 127
POWs (prisoners of war) 75
economic problems 105
exclusion of 129, 167
PPP (Programma Pret Pārtautošanos) 353
Priedkalns, Jānis 581
Proclamation Day (November 18) 330
Prods, Arvīds 419
Program Against National Identity Change 529
publishers 157-158
Daugava 84, 157, 310, 542, 596
Gauja 521
Grāmatu Draugs 219, 310, 497, 521
Trīs Zvaignes 157, 220
Zelta Ābele 157, 310
Purvītis, Vilhelms 291
quota systems 199, 200, 209
Rabacs, Kārlis 520
Raidonis, Alberts 550
Rainis (Jānis Pliekšāns) 171
Rancāns, Jāzeps 182
Raudseps, Pauls 643
Red Cross 97, 106, 108, 149, 182
repatriation 40, 146
forced 79, 90, 179
willing 129
Republic of Latvia (pre-WWII) 2, 109, 142, 144, 145, 328
resettlement destinations 137
Argentina 237-238
Australia 230
Austria 146, 147
Belgium 161, 166
Brazil 234-236
Canada 222
Chile 235
Denmark 169, 190
Finland 160
France 166
Italy 171
Netherlands 166, 168
New Zealand 230
Norway 160
Scotland 166
South America 234-238
Spain 172
Sweden, from German DP camps 154-155, 190
Switzerland 171
United Kingdom 161, 190
Venezuela 237
West German cities 148
Rīdznieks, Richards . Grīns, Ervins
Riga Committee 453, 454, 458, 459, 541, 546
Rīsbergs, Jānis 395
Ritenis, Jānis 419, 535, 580
Rosenberg, Alfred 151
Rozentāls, Jānis 160
Rozītis, Juris 528, 531
Rubesa, Baiba 414
Rubesa, Baņuta 563
Ručs, Kazimirs 326, 347
Rudzītis, Helmārs 218, 497, 591
Rūķe, Velta 242, 285, 295
Runģe, Sniedze 413
Runģe, Valija 265, 413, 539
Runģis, Aivars 348, 402, 436, 455, 485, 486, 512
Salnais, Voldemārs 28, 46
Sarma, Jānis 520
Saulīte, Kristīne 667
Schutzmatschaften (police formations) 26
Scout movement 111, 367
Boy Scouts 108, 143
Girl Scouts 143, 359
screening process 205
Senkēviča, Biruta 227
Sheffer, Gabriel 661, 663, 676
Šilde, Ādolfs 45, 79, 287
Silkalna, Selga 513
Silkalns, Eduards 390-391
Singing Revolution 552
Skalbe, Kārlis 44, 519
Skalbe, Lizete 44
Šķipsna, Ilze 307, 387-388, 520, 527
Skrastiņs, Hugo 435
Skreija, Andris 495
Skrodelis, Alfreds 327
Skujenieks, Marģers 658
Skujiņa, Ruta 13, 192, 221, 306, 343, 585
Skujiņš, Zigmunds 196
Slaucītājs, Sergejs and Leonīds 238
Šmits, Tālivaldis 379
Šmugajs, Eduards 410
Sniķere, Velta 165
Social Democrats 130, 157, 438
Sodums, Dzintars 306
song and dance festivals 112, 148, 163, 173, 228, 328, 424, 482, 523, 526, 554
sororities 217, 300, 359, 566
in Canada 227
Inter-sorority Council 301
South American and Caribbean Latvian Association (DAKLA) 668
sovietization 32, 71
Spekke, Arnolds 179, 336
Starcs, Pēteris 99, 268, 400
Štauvers, Mārtiņš 471
Stradiņš, Jānis 558
Streips, Kārlis 643
Strēlerte, Veronika 382, 491, 512
Study Group of Economists 157
Stutthof concentration camp 29, 76
Sudetenland 71, 73
supplementary schools 156, 214, 227, 292, 294, 297, 298, 352, 359, 381, 390, 508, 654, 665
Švābe, Arveds 65, 83, 97, 124, 159, 261, 331, 336
Švābe, Lidija 159
svauksts 282
Svenne, Ādolfs 404
Sventeckis, Konstantīns 590
svešums (foreignness) 65, 117
Sweden
departure for 46-49
dispersion of Latvians 85
forced repatriation of Legion 51, 81
Foreigners Committee & Refugee Relief Administration 50
Latvian intellectuals 85
refugee camps 80
refugees’ reception 50
resident alien status 72
Uppsala Latvian Society 157
Swedish-Latvian Assistance Committee 51
Swedish Social Democratic Party 51
table songs (galda dziesmas) 491
tauta (people) 21, 68, 70, 91, 177, 265, 337, 346, 556, 560, 570, 572
concept 77, 132, 410
philosophy 136
religious 109
Teikmanis, Andris 657
Third Reich refugee policy 52
Tillers, Imants 491, 524
Tobago 234, 430
Toma, Velta 227, 462, 466
Tone, Valdemārs 166
Toronto Latvian Society 227
trans-Atlantic crossings 207
transit camps 72, 73, 205
trauma
carrier group 64
collective 58, 61
construction 58
trimda (exile) xiv, xv, 414, 560, 573, 575, 587, 610, 670
Truman, Harry S. 209, 251
Ulmanis, Guntis 570, 580
Ulmanis, Kārlis 8, 10, 65, 130, 211, 312, 544
coup (1934) 82
deported 9
Ulmanis regime 6, 22, 153
neutrality policy 70
Ulmanists 279
Union of Academic Associations 302
United Nations Relief & Rehabilitation Agency (UNRRA) xviii, 61, 73, 98, 115
United States censuses 210, 212
Upatniece, Eleanora 375
Upelnieks, Kristaps 29
Upeslācis, Viktors 240, 273, 512
Upīts, Andrejs 196, 449
Ūršteins, Osvalds 520
Valdmanis, Alfrēds 97
valstspiederīgais (belonging to the state) 664
Valtere, Nora 428
Vāvere (Neboisa), Aina 373
Veidemanis, Juris 344, 348, 356
Veigners, Ilgvars 570, 573
Veselis, Jānis 519
Vētra, Mariss 228
Vīķe-Freiberga, Vaira 88, 489, 509, 513, 580, 638
Vīksna, Ingrīda 227
Vīksniņš, Juris 582
Vīksniņš, Nikolajs 336
Vilnis, Tālis 483
Vītols, Jāzeps 112, 519
Vītols Scholarship Foundation 643
Vītols, Vilis 576, 643
Voice of America 443
Voitkus, Arturs 229, 327
Voitkus-Lūkina, Maruta 575
Volksdeutsche 7
Vulfsons, Mavriks 551
Warsaw Pact 146
West Germany . Federal Republic of Germany
Westward Ho 162
World Council of Churches 181
World Federation of Free Latvians (PBLA) 212, 276, 278, 340, 405-406, 436, 541, 553, 555, 566, 667
World Lutheran Federation 140, 149, 181
Year of Terror (baigais gads) 6-15, 32
Žagariņš, Juris 630
Zalāne, Paulīne 492
Zandbergs, Mārtiņš 524
Zariņš, Aleksandrs 413, 530
Zariņš, Guntis 461
Zariņš, Kārlis 28, 89, 135, 138, 165, 175, 178, 179, 194, 198, 234, 263, 269, 442
Zariņš, Viesturs 665
Zēgners, Ģirts 540
Zeidaks, Andris 470
Zeltiņš, Teodors 221, 412
Zeps, Valdis 482
Ziedare, Anna 401
Ziedonis, Arvīds 327
Zīverts, Martiņš 84, 122, 124, 284, 306, 385, 425
Zobens, Lilija 651
Zuika, Roberts 164
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