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Index

Academic Terminology Commission 119–120
Adamovič, Alieś 63, 232–233
ADPU . Joint State Political Directorate (ADPU)
advocacy activities 91, 132 advocacy campaign(s)
advocacy campaign(s) xvi, 55, 85–86, 131, 137, 249
and illiteracy eradication centers 125
and peasants 54, 87, 90, 92
and teachers 87, 91–94, 131
for Belarusian school xvi, 83, 87–88, 92
for Belarusian language 54, 97, 135, 256
advocacy activities likpunkts
Ahniacviet, Edzi (Kahan, Edzi) 174
Alieksandrovič, Andrej 228
Alieĺkavičs 155
Andrejeva, Jefrasinnia 106, 126
assimilation 11
linguistic 167, 237
Soviet 168
Asvieta 17, 18, 85, 87, 111, 123, 141, 146, 240 Kamunistyčnaje Vychavannie
Azbukin, Mikalaj 64, 121, 144, 155, 162–163, 166
Babarykin, Piotr 64
Bahuševič, Francišak 159, 225
Bajkoŭ, Mikola 125
Balicki, Anton 1, 51, 62, 78, 101, 113–114, 232–234
Baĺšavik Bielarusi 18
Belarusian Academy of Sciences 18, 233–234
Belarusian language
advocacy campaign(s) for 54, 97, 135, 256
and Joseph Stalin 44–45, 257
and reform of Belarusian orthography (1933) 236–238
codification of xiv, 73, 176, 184, 251–253
deadline(s) for transition/transfer to 112–113, 122, 124, 169–170, 173, 175, 185–187, 191, 199, 203–204, 206, 250
dialects of 73, 77, 157, 184
in public sphere xiii–xv, 20, 30, 33, 50, 70, 84, 185
knowledge of 32, 53, 55, 80, 88, 92, 94, 99–103, 105, 107–110, 112, 117, 122, 126, 132–134, 137, 172–173, 175, 177, 189, 198, 201–202, 209–211, 214–215, 218, 222, 255
social status of xiv, xvi, 52, 185, 202, 204, 223, 253, 255, 258
advocacy campaign(s) Belarusization national language
Belarusian National Commissariat (Bielnackam) 33, 35
Belarusian Party of Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs) 60, 63–64, 218 esers
Belarusian People’s Republic (BNR) xiii, 6–7, 12, 24, 57, 59, 228
Belarusian Revolutionary Committee (Bielreŭkam) 35
Belarusian Socialist Hramada 66
Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR)
enlargement of (1924 and 1926) xvii, 11–12, 34–38, 75–76, 86, 126, 145
population of 29–30, 34, 37, 75, 81, 117, 145, 155, 220–222, 256
proclaiming of 28, 34
Belarusian State Publishing House 111
Belarusian State Theater 128
Belarusian State Veterinary Institute 68, 104, 112–116
Belarusian State University (BSU) 32, 68, 71, 98, 101–109, 112, 114, 116, 118–119, 122, 138, 232, 235
Belarusian studies (bielarusaznaŭstva) 3, 72, 128, 248
9- and 10-month courses of 71
and Central Belarusian Course (RSFSR) 129
course(s) 122, 171, 187, 189
Higher Course of 32, 72, 128–130
short-term courses of 52, 71, 75, 141
subjects 98, 104, 110, 124, 128–129
teachers of 72
Belarusization
activities 26, 33, 44–46, 51, 70–76, 83, 87, 92, 97, 99, 105, 113, 117–118, 120, 122, 126–127, 134–137, 169–172, 177, 180, 184, 186–187, 214, 239, 249, 256
and deadline(s) for 112–113, 122, 124, 169–170, 173, 175, 185–187, 191, 199, 203–204, 206, 250
and knowledge of Belarusian language 53, 80, 88, 92, 103, 108, 110, 173–174
and local lore activities 135–137
and local lore emphasis (orientation) 113, 117, 122, 128, 135
and national identity xiv–xvi, 15, 27, 142, 165, 167, 245–247, 251–261
and party apparatus xvi–xvii, 60, 86, 169–181, 205–206, 223, 250, 252
and peasantry 25–26, 32, 45–46, 51, 54–57, 67, 69, 81, 83–92, 97, 114–117, 123–127, 133, 176, 181, 185, 194–195, 201–202, 205, 253–256, 259
and so-called “hard line” 86, 170
and so-called persuasion methods 86, 170
and state apparatus xv–xvii, 22, 47, 53, 62, 67, 97, 134, 169–175, 184–206, 217–223, 229, 235, 244, 250, 259–260
and textbooks 31, 69, 71, 73–75, 77, 80, 87–88, 93, 97, 108, 119, 121, 125–126, 135, 137–168, 184, 217, 239–240, 246, 248
and Belarusian language xiv–xvii, 24–27, 33–34, 44–56, 68–137, 169–223, 236–240, 245–261
at higher educational establishments 52, 55, 68–69, 72, 80, 97–119, 122, 127–128, 137–139, 196, 222, 232, 235–236, 243–244, 248–250, 255, 260
at medical institutions 194
at pedagogical colleges 52, 68–69, 72, 80, 97–101, 103, 105, 108, 116–117, 122, 124, 127, 129, 131, 133, 138–139, 196, 235–236, 249
at the 10th Congress of the RKP(b) (1921) 28, 42–47, 49, 70, 170
at Belarusian State University 97–98, 101–102, 104–109, 111, 118–119, 122, 232
at trade-unions 131, 170, 172, 181–184, 187–188, 196, 199, 201, 221
closure (cessation) of 117, 193, 205, 222, 225, 229, 231, 235–236, 241, 244, 255, 258–261
implementation of xiv–xvii, 2, 7–8, 24, 39, 46, 48, 51, 53, 59, 66, 68, 78, 81, 97, 110, 112, 118, 127, 130–131, 133–134, 137, 168–169, 173, 178, 180, 184, 187, 190, 193, 202, 204–206, 214, 216, 223, 230, 233, 241, 246, 248–250, 255, 257–259
inspections of 53, 80, 86, 109, 134, 170, 172–175, 177, 182, 185–186, 192, 195, 198–200, 223, 225
of military division(s) 206–217
of schools 30–33, 68–97, 127–135, 238–240, 244, 248–250, 255, 260
of the education system xvi–xvii, 30–33, 68–137, 230–240, 243–244, 246–250, 255, 260
schedule of 52–53, 69, 108, 113, 170, 172, 206, 214
Belarusian language nationality policy National Commission
Berlin 140
Beyrau, Dietrich 13
Biadulia, Źmitrok (Plaŭnik, Samuil) 174, 243
Białystok 38, 143, 155
Biassonaŭ, Piotr 160
Bibila, Julija 64
BNR . Belarusian People’s Republic (BNR)
Bobruisk (Bel: Babrujsk) 64–65, 76, 94–96, 207
Bolsheviks 4–5, 8–10, 24, 28, 40, 42–44, 47, 56, 222, 243
and proletarian internationalism xvi, 39, 41, 245, 256
and national question 39–42, 46, 49, 60, 118, 149, 188, 205, 208, 230, 241, 246, 255
and right to self-determination 39–43, 252
and nationality policy 44, 47, 55, 233
and intelligentsia 56–67
Russian Communist Party (of the Bolsheviks) (RKP(b))
Borisov (Bel: Barysaŭ) 76, 189, 191–192, 207
Brest 143, 145
Bryansk 38, 130, 143
BSSR . Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR)
BSU . Belarusian State University (BSU)
Bukharin, Nikolai 39, 41
Bund (General Jewish Labour Bund) 60, 66, 218 Zionist organizations
Burbis, Alieś 45
Catherine II 156
Catholic religion 82, 165 Catholics
Catholicism 157–158, 165
Catholics 81–83, 155
and identity-formation processes xv
and schools for Catholic children 81–83
and Belarusian language 81
Belarusian xv, 81, 83
population of 81
Catholic religion
censorship 2, 15
of textbooks 240
Central Bureau of Local Lore 121, 135 local lore activities local lore movement (krajanaŭčy ruch) Naš Kraj
Central Control Commission KP(b)B 176, 238
activities monitored by 176, 222
Central Control Commission VKP(b) 224–226, 230, 233, 255
and Belarusian intelligentsia 227
conclusions of 229
Central Committee (TsK) KP(b)B 15–16, 95, 49–51, 53, 55–56, 81, 94–95, 97, 110, 112, 115, 117–118, 137, 175, 177, 180, 184, 188, 199–200, 205, 214, 219, 224, 235, 237, 242
and adding eastern Belarusian districts 36
Agitation and Propaganda Department 109–110, 123
resolution(s) of 177
Central Executive Committee (TsVK) BSSR 2, 25, 35, 37, 50–51, 53, 59, 69–70, 132, 169, 173, 177, 203, 220
and interconnection between the state and the party apparatus 177
Commission for Nationality Policy Implementation National Commission
centralization 225
Chackievič, Aliaksandr 53, 221
chata-čytaĺnia 65, 87, 88, 90, 122–126, 131 likpunkt illiteracy eradication centers
chauvinism 2, 36, 39, 42, 45, 49, 60, 62, 67, 118, 159
Belarusian 62, 67, 230
Great Russian 11, 43–44, 49, 66, 179–180, 191, 227, 231, 249
nationalism
Chernigov 143
Chocina, Ala 21
Ciapinski, Vasiĺ 150
class struggle 39, 41, 168, 226, 230, 240–241, 245, 249
and Belarusization 230, 241
collectivization 225, 235
Commission for Nationality Policy Implementation . National Commission
Commonwealth of Poland and Lithuania 156–157, 159, 247
communism 9–10, 47, 49, 139, 196, 246
military 225
policy of War 28, 34
Communist Party (of the Bolsheviks) of Belarus (KP(b)B)
and cleansing (of intelligentsia) 51, 63–66
and implementation of Belarusization 49, 54–55, 85, 111–112, 167, 205
and indigenization (korenizatsiya) 39, 42, 47–48, 55, 114, 176, 178, 196, 217–218, 222–223, 246
and interconnection between the state and the party apparatus 177
and national democratism 118, 227, 230–244
and national intelligentsia xv–xvii, 4–5, 43–45, 47–50, 55–67, 111, 115, 117–118, 130, 134, 168, 176, 196, 227–234, 240, 242–246, 248, 256, 260–261
and teachers 60, 94–96, 127, 130–135, 137
and Belarusian language 25–27, 45, 55, 97, 175, 177
Central Bureau (TsB) of 35, 65, 71
Bolsheviks Russian Communist Party (of the Bolsheviks) (RKP(b))
Communist University 68, 109, 111, 115, 117 Vladimir Lenin Communist University
communists 12, 25, 44, 47, 50, 60, 87, 175, 179, 192, 226
Belarusian 35, 180, 229
nationally-oriented 21, 35, 44, 51
Russian 43–44
Council of People’s Commissars (SNK) 31, 35–36, 50, 57, 115, 120, 140, 169, 171, 173, 186–187, 191, 204–205, 219, 236–237, 241
Cvikievič, Aliaksandr 57, 59
Čačot, Jan 159
Čajankova, Halina 204
Čarnuševič, Dzmitry 53
Čarviakoŭ, Aliaksandr 1, 25, 50–51, 177, 196, 233–234, 243
and consolidation of Belarusian lands 35–36
Čyhrynaŭ, Piotr 21
Čyrvony Šliach 33
distinctness 114, 143, 161, 167–168, 227, 234, 237, 247, 258
Belarusian 143, 157, 161–162, 234, 244, 247, 260–261
cultural xiii, 4, 157, 166–168, 225, 247, 251, 258–259, 261
ethnic 143, 251
historical 26–27, 167, 225, 251, 258–260
linguistic xiii, 167, 237, 247, 258, 261
national 23, 43, 142, 158, 162–163, 166, 227, 234, 240, 244, 247, 258, 260
identity
Dönninghaus, Victor 8
Doŭnar-Zapoĺski, Mitrafan 104
Dreizin, Julian 174
Dribin 192, 198
Duchy of Moscow 149–150 Moscovia
Dunin-Marcinkievič, Vincent 159
Dzerzhynskiy, Feliks 39
Dziannica 33
Dziaržynski, Uladzislaŭ 150, 166
Engels, Friedrich 39, 111
esers 118, 233 Belarusian Party of Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs)
Estonia 40
ethnogenesis 160, 162, 247
according to Usievalad Ihnatoŭski 160–161
according to Uladzimir Pičeta 161
federalism 40
Finland 40–41
Fishman, Joshua 251
Gediminas (Bel: Hiedymin) 152
Germany 140, 240
Głogowska, Helena 7, 21
Gołąbek, Józef 1
Gomel (Bel: Homieĺ) 35–37, 83–87, 89–92, 111, 126, 128–129, 207, 235–236
Grand Duchy of Lithuania xiii, 29, 147–149, 151–153, 155, 166, 238, 247
and Lithuanians 147, 149, 153–154
and Belarusian language 147–148, 150–151, 238
as a Lithuanian-Belarusian state 147–149, 151–153, 247
ethnically Belarusian lands of xiii, 29, 152–153
Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1529, 1588)
Great Break (1929) 2, 224–225, 237, 244 Stalin, Joseph
Grunwald, Battle of (1410) 152–153
Haladzied, Mikalaj 237, 241
Harecki, Haŭryla 103, 118
Harecki, Maksim 91, 121, 150–151, 160–161, 165, 233
Herder, Johann Gottfried 259
Hirsh, Francine 23
history
and right of Belarusian nation to distinctness 247
Belarusian xiv–xv, 4, 28, 91, 121, 128, 130, 145, 152, 155, 166, 174, 234, 245, 247, 261
concept of 142, 152, 156, 247, 260
Golden Age of 150, 166, 226, 247
national xiv, 49, 153, 167, 246–247
remarkable figures of 155
Soviet xvii, 224, 245, 261
symbolic center of 145–160
distinctness identity
Hlybinny, Uladzimier 5, 23
Hramyka, Michajla 240
Hroch, Miroslav 252, 257
identity
adoption of 253, 255–256, 258
Belarusian 10, 135, 138, 252, 259
ethnic 254
model of xiv, xvi–xvii, 27, 138–139, 141–142, 165, 167, 258, 260–261
national xiv–xvii, 10, 15, 22, 27, 83, 138–140, 165, 167, 245–247, 249, 251–261
national language and 254, 258
Soviet 9, 144, 261
distinctness
Ihnatoŭski, Usievalad 1, 45, 49, 51, 65, 71, 91, 104, 121, 136, 145–148, 152, 156, 158–160, 164, 196, 226, 228, 233–234, 242
and Belarusian language 45, 51, 136, 196
illiteracy 84, 122–123, 131, 133, 207, 218
“Belarusian” 127, 133
eradication of 79, 123, 126, 131, 137, 212, 255
“political” 95–96, 127, 194, 249
illiteracy eradication centers 65, 68, 122–123, 125–126, 131, 256
and Main Committee of Political Education 123
likpunkt
Iĺjučonak, Piotr 71
Inbielkuĺt 18, 52, 59, 68, 97, 106, 118–122, 130, 135–136, 197, 233
and Central Bureau of Local Lore 121, 135
commission at 120–121
dictionary commissions and 120, 136
Jewish department at 121
section(s) of 120–121, 125
teachers and 120, 136
terminology and 106, 119–122
textbooks published by 119, 121
Institute of Belarusian Culture
indigenization xv, xvii, 8–9, 11, 22–23, 27, 39, 47–48, 55, 170, 243–246, 251–252
and party apparatus 176–178
and state apparatus 217–223
and quotas (for students) 114–115
as component of Belarusization 20, 22, 27, 43, 114
at higher educational establishments 113–117, 119, 196
at the 10th Congress of the RKP(b) (1921) 42–44, 46
at the 12th Congress of the RKP(b) (1923) 36, 39, 46–47
ideological aspect of 217
result of 119, 222
korenizatsiya nationality policy
industrialization 29, 225, 257
Institute of Belarusian Culture . Inbielkuĺt
intelligentsia xv–xvii, 5, 7, 21–22, 29, 35, 43–45, 47–50, 55–64, 66–67, 84, 103, 111, 115, 117–118, 130, 134, 148, 150, 154, 158, 160, 162, 168, 176, 196, 227–234, 240, 242–246, 248, 253–256, 260–261
amnesty for 59
and Central Control Commission VKP(b) 227–229, 233
and “cultural construction” 56, 58
and Statement of the 32 35
and Belarusian “national cause” 58
Belarusian/national xv–xvii, 4–5, 7, 21–22, 43, 47, 50, 55–56, 62–63, 67, 84, 158, 168, 227–230, 234, 243, 245–246, 248, 256
classification of 61, 227–228, 246
cleansing of 63–64
cooperation with xv–xvii, 4, 9, 43, 48, 55–59, 61, 63, 67, 230, 245–246
decree related to 61–62
disagreements between communist party and 58
“higher” 229, 246
Jewish 62
leftist or “grassroots“/“bottom-level” 60, 227–228, 246
local 48, 154
national-democratic 118
“petty bourgeois” 56, 59–61, 63, 227
proletarian 56
sovietization of 229, 246
TsK KP(b)B Commission on 118
with no party affiliation 58–60, 111, 118
nacdemy national democratism
internationalism 39, 42, 195, 238
communist 144, 180
proletarian xvi, 39, 41, 245, 256–257
Ivan ІІІ 151
Ivan IV 156
Iwanow, Mikołaj 14, 23
Jews 25, 29, 61–62, 73, 78, 83, 101–103, 106, 110, 114, 116–117, 146, 154, 164, 174, 178–179, 182, 191, 194, 210, 218–221, 244, 250, 255, 257
and Belarusian language 114, 174, 210, 218
and national composition of KP(b)B 178–179, 219
as part of urban population 29, 78, 117, 154, 248
at BSU 101–103, 106, 110, 114, 116–117
in textbooks 146, 154, 164, 166
in Vilno 154
national minorities Yiddish
Joint State Political Directorate (ADPU) 57, 233
Kaiser, Robert J . 8, 22–23
Kaliada, Ina 204
Kalinin 77–78, 85, 90, 132, 186, 188–189, 196
Kalinoŭski, Kanstancin (Kastuś) (Pol: Konstanty Kalinowski) 157–159
Usievalad Ihnatoŭski’s analysis of 157–158
Kamenev, Lev 48
Kamunistyčnaje Vychavannie 17, 240–241 Asvieta
Kappeler, Andreas 22
Karoĺ, Aliaksiej 6, 20
Karski, Jaŭchim 71
Kasciuk, Michaś 21, 204
Kirkor, Adam 160
Klimaŭ, Ihar 7, 21
Knorin, Vilgelm 1, 70, 168, 180, 196, 226
and intra-party conflict 234
and national language 70, 180, 196
Kolas, Jakub (Mickievič, Kanstancin) 129–130, 155, 160, 233, 243
Komsomol 90, 115, 130, 136, 206–208, 211, 220
members 220
organizations 90, 115, 130, 136
Lenin Communist Union of the Youth of Belarus (LKSMB)
korenizatsiya . indigenization nationality policy
Kopys (Bel: Kopyś) 190
KP(b)B . Communist Party (of the Bolsheviks) of Belarus (KP(b)B)
Kraskoŭski, Ivan 57, 59
Krynicky, Aliaksandr 1, 24–25, 57–60, 63, 86, 196, 217–218, 227–228, 234
classification of Belarusian intelligentsia by 57–60, 63, 227–228
kulak 7, 227, 231
Kupala, Janka 77, 130, 233, 237, 243
Lastoŭski, Vaclaŭ 57, 59, 196, 233, 248
Latvia 40, 143–144
Latvians 178
Le Foll, Claire 13
Lenin, Vladimir 35–36, 39, 41–43, 95, 123, 125
and national question 36, 39, 41
and right of nations to self-determination 39–42
concept of nationality policy by 42
Lenin Communist Union of the Youth of Belarus (LKSMB) 220
Leningrad 229, 235
Liber, George 8, 23
likpunkt 68, 122–123, 125–127
and Main Committee of Political Education 123
Belarusization of 122–127
illiteracy eradication centers chata-čytaĺnia
Lindner, Rainer 12–13, 21
linguistic policy 7, 255 Belarusization
Liosik, Anton 80
Liosik, Jazep 1, 64–65, 71, 104, 111, 129, 140, 160, 196, 227, 233, 237, 248
LitBel 34
Lithuania 29, 38, 40, 143, 145, 147–153, 155–157, 159, 166, 238, 247, 256
Lithuanian-Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic . LitBel
Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic 34
Lithuanians 30, 147, 149, 153–154, 161, 167
in textbooks 147, 149, 153–154, 161, 167
LKSMB . Lenin Communist Union of the Youth of Belarus (LKSMB) Komsomol
local lore activities 135–136 Central Bureau of Local Lore
local lore associations 135–136
local lore emphasis (orientation) 113, 117, 122, 128, 135
local lore hobby-groups 26, 121
local lore movement (krajanaŭčy ruch) 136, 255 Central Bureau of Local Lore
local lore studies (krajanaŭstva) 18, 130
and regional studies 18, 128–129, 234
Central Bureau of Local Lore Naš Kraj
local lore subjects 73
Luxemburg, Rosa 41
Lyč, Lieanid 6–7, 20, 106, 126, 204
Magdeburg Law 149, 155–156, 166
miastečka 25, 29, 78, 127, 179, 196–197, 218, 220–222, 248
Main Committee of Political Education 123
Maladniak 18, 60, 85
Maliszewski, Edward 1
Marples, David 13
Martin, Terry 8, 10, 22–23
Marx, Karl 111
Marxism 66, 72, 139, 234
Marxists 47, 234
Mensheviks 63, 118
Mickievič, Adam (Pol: Adam Mickiewicz) 155, 160
Minsk 34, 71–72, 74, 76, 78–80, 84, 98, 100, 103, 106, 109, 126, 128–129, 136, 140, 145, 154–155, 172, 183, 191, 202, 207
as the capital 154–155
modernization 23, 257
Mogilev (Bel: Mahilieŭ) 34, 77, 83, 99, 111, 136, 195, 235
Molotov – Ribbentrop Pact 37
Moscovia 143, 151–152, 164 Duchy of Moscow
Moscow 12, 35, 40, 57, 60–61, 65, 81, 109, 112, 125, 135, 146, 149–150, 152, 221, 224, 227–229, 233, 235–236
Mozyr 76, 188, 197, 207
nacdem 227 naсdemaŭščyna national democrat national democratism
naсdemaŭščyna 238 national democratism
Nasovič, Ivan 160
Naš Kraj 18, 121, 136 local lore studies (krajanaŭstva) Central Bureau of Local Lore
Naša Niva 82, 160, 225
nation xiv–xv, vxiii, 1, 8–10, 18, 20, 22–25, 27, 38–42, 46–47, 73, 83, 112, 129–130, 144, 148–149, 152, 154, 161, 163, 165–168, 171, 222, 226, 234–235, 239, 245–248, 250, 253–255, 257–259
as a state formation 259
Belarusian xiv–xv, 1, 9–10, 20, 23–25, 27, 38, 129–130, 149, 161, 166–167, 171, 217, 226, 234–235, 246–247, 250, 253, 257, 259
civic 258–259
ethnic 259
formation of xiv, 1, 10, 27, 234, 245–246, 250, 255, 259
Lithuanian 148–149
modern vxiii, 250
non-Russian 8, 40, 42
right to self-determination of 40–42
so-called „small“ 39
Soviet 239
Vladimir Lenin’s opinion about 39, 41–42
Ukrainian 161
nation-building national agitation
nation-building 1, 10, 27, 234, 245–246, 255, 259 nation
national agitation 252–253, 256–258, 260
Belarusization as 253, 257
nation
“national area” 43, 142–144
national character 142, 162–163
National Commission 1, 25–26, 53, 55, 82–83, 132, 170, 172–173, 176–177, 180, 183, 185, 187, 189–192, 195–204, 206, 217, 221–223, 250
and inspection commissions 184–189
and its inspectors xvi–xvii, 74–76, 82, 84, 93, 133, 177, 182–191, 193, 198–199
and schedule of Belarusization 53, 108, 170
inspection of knowledge of Belarusian language 53, 172–175, 177
inspections by 53, 80, 86, 109, 134, 170, 172–175, 177, 182, 185–186, 192, 195, 198, 200, 223
reports of vxii, 18, 54, 82, 94, 105, 111, 123, 126, 132–133, 136, 173, 185, 188–194, 200, 202, 205, 208
resolution(s) of 172, 199
Commission for Nationality Policy Implementation Belarusian language nationality policy
national composition 49, 55, 81, 105, 114, 116–117, 119, 145, 178–179, 182, 220–221, 235, 249
of division 235
of KP(b)B 178–179
of students 114, 116–117, 249
of teaching staff 105, 119
of white-collar workers 220
indigenization
national democrat 227, 231–234, 236–238, 244
bullying of 231
nacdem
national democratism 2, 230–237, 240–244
and intelligentsia 230–232, 237, 240
and SVB case 233
as pretext for cessation of Belarusization 244
as the main threat 230–235
change of essence of 44, 230
struggle against 232, 234–236, 238, 243
naсdemaŭščyna
national language 10, 22–23, 25, 27, 30, 33, 46–50, 70, 73, 136, 165, 197, 245, 251–254, 259
and Joseph Stalin 46, 48, 257
National Commission Belarusization
national minority 10, 12, 14, 25, 43, 67, 70, 73, 76, 80, 83, 99, 105, 121, 147, 164, 173, 178, 198
Jewish 25, 73, 83, 173
pedagogical colleges for 98–99
Polish 25, 173
schools 70, 76, 80, 105
Jews Poles Polish language
national movement xiv, 6, 20, 24, 42, 142, 154, 156, 158–160, 163, 245, 252, 254, 256–258
Belarusian 6, 20, 24, 142, 154, 156, 158–160
demands of 252
European 163, 252, 258
mass xiv, 257
nationalism 8–9, 24, 42–44, 49, 66, 180, 195, 225–228, 231, 244, 260
Belarusian 225, 227
bourgeois 44, 49, 231, 244
bourgeois-democratic 44, 49, 226
local 24, 43–44, 66, 180, 244
petty-bourgeois 44
chauvinism
nationality policy xv–xvii, 1–3, 7–10, 12, 18, 20, 22–25, 39–40, 42–52, 54–56, 60, 62–63, 66, 70, 78, 85–86, 91, 95–97, 103, 109–111, 114–115, 122, 128, 130, 132, 134, 136–137, 144, 169, 172, 176, 179–180, 187, 192–196, 203–205, 208, 214, 217, 223–225, 229, 227, 231, 341, 244–246, 248–251, 256–257
and cooperation with intelligentsia xv–xvii, 4, 9, 43, 45, 48, 55, 59, 61–63, 67, 227, 230, 245–246
and Stalin’s “link” (smychka) 25, 46
at the 8th Congress of the RKP(b) (1919) 40, 179
at the 10th Congress of the RKP(b) (1921) 28, 42–47, 49, 70
at the 12th Congress of the RKP(b) (1923) 39, 44, 46–47, 50, 168
closure of 144, 193, 205, 222, 225, 229
concept of 7, 42, 46–47, 50, 52
Lenin’s concept of 42
Zatonsky’s criticism of 224–229
Belarusization Nacional Commission
nationalization 23, 39, 46, 48, 245 indigenization
NEP . New Economic Policy
New Economic Policy 2, 28
Nicholas I 154
Niekraševič, Sciapan 1, 118, 125, 140, 227, 233, 237
Nikicina, Tacciana 22
NKA . People’s Commissariat of Education (NKA)
Novozybkov 86, 89–92
Ochota, Jan 1
Orsha (Bel: Vorša) 77, 82, 131, 133, 190, 192
Orthodox Belarusians xv, 165
and identity-formation processes xv
Orthodox religion 165
Orthodoxy 158
People’s Commissariat of Education (NKA) 30–31, 33, 49, 51, 62, 64–65, 69, 71, 73–74, 76, 81, 87, 91–93, 95–96, 105, 113, 118–120, 123–124, 126, 129–130, 140–141, 169–173, 186, 188, 191, 204, 232, 238, 243–244, 250
and teachers’ conference 73
Belarusian chapter of 64, 71, 74–75, 140, 170
Belarusian subchapters of 64
Gomel Guberniya Chapter of 87, 92
Main Committee of Political Education of 123
reports of 64–65, 74, 80–81, 93, 105, 113, 123, 126, 141, 171, 189, 243
People’s Commissariat of Internal Affairs 169, 187, 191
People’s Commissariat of Land Cultivation 169, 173, 186–187, 201, 231
Peter I 146
Petersburg 146, 154
Piatuchovič, Michail 129
Pičeta, Uladzimir 71, 104, 109, 121, 145–147, 149–152, 155, 161, 166, 240, 252
Platonaŭ, Rascislaŭ 17, 21, 23
Poland 12, 34–35, 38, 51, 105, 143–144, 151–152, 157, 159, 162, 167, 247–248
Belarus as a part of 12
Belarusian territories were transferred to 34
claims by 157, 247
ethnically Belarusian parts of 37–38
Poles 30, 116, 144, 154, 161, 163, 167, 178–179, 218, 220–221, 254–255 national minority
Polish language 81–83, 203
and social status 203
in schools 81–83
national minority Poles polonization
polonization 30, 69, 83, 156, 158, 165, 247
and Belarusian language 30, 69–70, 83
and russification 30, 69, 83, 156, 158, 165, 247
russification
Polotsk (Bel: Polack) 77, 82–83, 98, 105, 132–133, 145–146, 148, 152–153, 159, 166, 183, 202, 247
Prague 148
Prakulievič, Uladzimir 57
primordialism 142
Principality of Polotsk 146, 166, 247
Principality of Smolensk 146–147 Smolensk
proletariat 41, 46, 58, 62–63, 67, 139, 226, 238, 257
dictatorship of 41, 46, 58, 62, 67
formation of 257
Pryščepaŭ, Dzmitry 227, 231, 233
Pskov 130
Pyatakov, Georgiy 39, 41–42
rabfak 100, 106
Radek, Karl 39
Radzik, Ryszard 205, 254
Radzivils (Pol: Radziwiłł) 155
Rahnieda 146
Ramanaŭ, Jeŭdakim 160
Rechitsa (Bel: Rečyca) 37, 86, 88, 128, 207
Red Army 27, 37, 64, 173, 206–213, 235
2nd Belarusian Division of 55, 206–207, 212, 235
Belarusization of 206–217
Belarusian servicemen 209, 212–213
Jewish servicemen 210
Reformation 148, 166, 247
repression 15, 67, 232–235, 237, 243
against Belarusian intelligentsia 67, 232–234, 237, 243
naсdemaŭščyna national democratism
RKP(b) . Russian Communist Party (of the Bolsheviks) (RKP(b))
RSDRP(b) . Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party (Bolsheviks) (RSDRP(b))
RSFSR . Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR)
Rudling, Anders Per 9–12, 23
Russia xiii, 30, 34, 38, 40–44, 47, 129, 143, 149, 154–159, 164, 166, 192, 218, 221, 234–235, 248, 256–257
Belarusian paviets and guberniyas added to 34
border regions of 42–43, 47
ethnically Belarusian parts of 37–38, 129
Tsarist xiii, 30, 40–41, 44, 156–157, 159, 218, 256–257
Russian Empire
Russian Communist Party (of the Bolsheviks) (RKP(b)) 28, 34, 36, 39–40, 42–51, 55, 60, 65, 70, 168, 180, 245 Bolsheviks Communist Party (of the Bolsheviks) of Belarus (KP(b)B)
Russian Empire 43, 156–157, 247, 253–254
Belarusians in 253 Russia
Russian language xiii, 30, 33, 44, 46, 73–74, 78–80, 83–84, 89, 95, 105, 108, 111, 119, 123, 127, 133–135, 144, 179, 181, 183, 185–188, 190, 192, 198–200, 202, 205, 235–239, 244, 249, 251, 253–255, 257–261
and russification 44, 179
in the city environment 78–79, 185
schooling in 30, 78–80, 83–84, 95, 111, 119, 134–135, 238–239, 249, 260
Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party (Bolsheviks) (RSDRP(b)) 4–5, 8–10, 15, 24, 28, 35–36, 39–40, 42, 44, 47, 56
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) 35–37, 40, 56, 76, 86, 129–130, 144, 193
Belarusian paviets and guberniyas acquired by 35
ethnically Belarusian lands of 35–36, 86, 144
Russians 29, 42, 114, 116, 154, 160, 163, 166–167, 178–179, 182, 194, 218–221, 244, 250, 254–255 national minority
russification xiii, 30, 44, 69, 149, 156, 158–160, 165, 179, 182, 187, 222–223, 232, 247, 256–258, 260–261
and Belarusian language 30, 69–70, 83, 223
and polonization 30, 69, 83, 156, 158, 165, 247
and Sovietization 256–257
of city environment 182, 223, 258
of state apparatus 187, 222
of tsarist Russia 44, 256
polonization
Sajuz vyzvaliennia Bielarusi (SVB) 223
Sapieha, Lieŭ 150
Savieckaja Bielaruś 18, 33, 45, 58, 77, 99, 141, 232
Senno (Bel: Sianno) 77, 93
sieĺsaviet 76 village soviets
Skaryna, Francysk 146, 150, 155, 225
Skrypnyk, Mykola 44, 49
Slezkine, Yuri 8, 22–23
Slootsk (Bel: Sluck) 26, 64, 72 –74, 76, 192, 194, 197, 207, 236
Smaliacič, Klimient 146
Smalienski, Aŭraam 146
Smirnov, Aleksandr 60–61
Smith, Jeremy 8, 23
Smolensk 34–38, 129–130, 143, 145–147, 152–153, 159 Principality of Smolensk
Smolič, Arkadź 104, 117–118, 121, 142–146, 153–155, 161–165, 196, 233, 248
Belarusian ethnogenesis by 161–162
Belarusian national character by 163
concept of a “national area” by 143–144
interpretation of Vilno by 145, 153–154
SNK . Council of People’s Commissars (SNK)
social mobility 84, 218, 253–255
of Belarusians 218, 253, 255
social structure 29, 217, 222, 245, 250–253, 258–259
complete 29, 217, 222, 245, 251–252
incomplete 222, 250, 253, 258
Socialist Soviet Republic of Belarus (SSRB) 28, 33–34, 64, 71, 73
sovietization 4, 22, 42–43, 56, 168, 229, 236, 246, 248, 256–257 russification
SRs . Belarusian Party of Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs)
SSRB . Socialist Soviet Republic of Belarus (SSRB)
St. Jeŭfrasinnia (Euphrosyne) 146, 155
Stalin, Joseph 2, 25, 42–48, 167–168, 224, 229, 244, 248, 257, 260
and Belarusian question 44–45
and national question 42, 46, 48
“link” between workers and peasants by 25, 46
Stalin’s Great Break 2, 224, 244
Stankievič, Stanislaŭ 24
Staravojtaŭ, Michail 22
Stariye Dorogi (Bel: Staryja Darohi) 82, 171
statehood xiv, 39, 62, 185, 247, 258–259
Belarusian 247
formation of xiv, 259
Jewish 62
Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (1529, 1588) 150–151, 156
and Belarusian language 150–151, 156
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Suny, Ronald G . 22–23
SVB . Sajuz vyzvaliennia Bielarusi (SVB)
Ščakacichin, Mikalaj 129
Šybieka, Zachar 24
Šypila Ivan 58, 228
Taraškievič, Branislaŭ 140, 237
Teutonic Order 152–153
Treaty of Riga (1921) 34
Trotsky, Lev 46–47
TsK KP(b)B . Central Committee (TsK) KP(b)B
TsVK BSSR . Central Executive Committee (TsVK) BSSR
Turaŭski, Kiryla 146
tutejšyja 85
Ukraine 8, 38
Ukrainization 8, 22, 39, 46
Union of Lublin (1569) 152, 156
urbanization 29
Usiaslaŭ the Sorcerer (Bel: Usiaslaŭ Čaradziej) 146, 153, 155
Vakar, Nicholas P . 4, 24
Vaĺfson, Siamion 2
Vialiki, Anatoĺ 178–180
village soviets 8, 76, 83, 105, 131, 190, 192, 195, 202, 219–220 sieĺsaviet
Vilnius 30, 34, 38, 143, 145
and consolidation of Belarusian lands 37–38
and “national area” 143
Vilno
Vilno (Bel: Viĺna) 143, 145, 148, 153–156
and Belarusian population 153–155
as cultural center 145, 153–154
Belarusian 153–155
Belarusian culture in 154
Vilnius
Vilno University 154, 158
Vitebsk (Bel: Viciebsk) 34–37, 77, 79, 99, 111–112, 131–132, 145, 183, 207, 235
Vladimir Lenin Communist University . Communist University
Vytautas (Bel: Vitaŭt) 152
West Belarus 12, 37, 51, 144
adding to BSSR 37
Yiddish 11, 25, 33, 52, 69, 78–79, 99, 119, 169, 173, 181–182, 191, 197–198, 203, 257
and social status 203
as official state language (1921) 25, 69
eradication of illiteracy in 79
periodicals in 33, 197–198
teaching in 11, 99, 119
transfer to 52
national minority Jews
zapadnorusizm 157
Zarecki, Michaś 228
Zatonsky, Vladimir 224–229, 241, 255
and cessation of Belarusization 224–225, 255
and classification of intelligentsia 227–229
Central Control Commission VKP(b)
Zhlobin (Bel: Žlobin) 94–97
Zionist organizations 218 Bund (General Jewish Labour Bund)
Žižka, Jan 152
Žylka, Uladzimir 229
Žylunovič, Zmicier (Hartny, Ciška) 70, 130, 140, 227–228, 233–234, 242–243
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