Sanitized Sacrifice in Aramaic Levi’s Law of the Priesthood

In: Journal of Ancient Judaism
View More View Less
  • 1 New York University, New York, NY, USA

Purchase instant access (PDF download and unlimited online access):

Abstract

Most studies of the law of the priesthood in Aramaic Levi have focused on comparing its individual laws to those in the Torah/Pentateuch. This article argues that these types of comparisons are anachronistic and obscure the distinctive portrayal of sacrifice in Aramaic Levi. The law of the priesthood does not merely respond to, expand, or revise earlier ideas about sacrifice found in “biblical” texts. Rather, the practice and function of sacrifice in Aramaic Levi is constructed around the deity’s senses of sight and smell. Inasmuch as the law of the priesthood presents a fundamentally different idea of sacrifice than the one presented in Leviticus, it speaks to the continuum of distinct Jewish ideologies of sacrifice in the mid-Second Temple period.

  • Becker, Jürgen. Untersuchungen zur Entstehungsgeschichte der Testamente der Zwölf Patriarchen. Leiden: Brill, 1970.

  • Bond, Sarah. Trade and Taboo: Disreputable Professions in the Roman World. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2016.

  • Breed, Brennan. Nomadic Text: A Theory of Biblical Reception History. Indiana Series in Biblical Literature. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carr, David M.The Rise of Torah.” Pages 3956 in The Pentateuch as Torah: New Models for Understanding Its Promulgation and Acceptance. Edited by Gary N. Knoppers and Bernard M. Levinson. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Carr, David M. The Formation of the Hebrew Bible: A New Reconstruction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

  • Charles, R. H. The Greek Versions of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. Oxford: Clarendon, 1908.

  • Collins, John J.The Transformation of the Torah in Second Temple Judaism.” Journal for the Study of Judaism 43.4–5 (2012): 455474.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Detienne, Marcel. “Culinary Practices and the Spirit of Sacrifice.” Pages 120 in The Cuisine of Sacrifice among the Greeks. Edited by Marcel Detienne and Jean-Pierre Vernant. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1989.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Detienne, Marcel and Jean-Pierre Vernant. The Cuisine of Sacrifice Among the Greeks. 1st ed. University of Chicago Press, 1998.

  • Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concept of Pollution and Taboo. New York/London: Taylor and Francis (Routledge), 2003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Drawnel, Henryk. An Aramaic Wisdom Text from Qumran: A New Interpretation of the Levi Document. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

  • Drawnel, Henryk. “Priestly Education in the Aramaic Levi Document (Visions of Levi) and Aramaic Astronomical Book (4Q208–211).” Revue de Qumran 88.22 (2006): 547574.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Feldman, Liane M. The Story of Sacrifice: Ritual and Narrative in the Priestly Source. Forschungen zum Alten Testament 141. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Gemmer Gudme, Anne Katrine. “A pleasing odour for Yahweh: the smell of sacrifices on Mount Gerizim and in the Hebrew Bible.” Body and Religion 2.1 (2018): 724.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • de Jong, Marinus. Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1953.

  • Grätz, Sebastian. “The Second Temple and the Legal Status of the Torah: The Hermeneutics of the Torah in the Books of Ruth and Ezra.” Pages 273288 in The Pentateuch as Torah: New Models for Understanding Its Promulgation and Acceptance. Edited by Gary N. Knoppers and Bernard M. Levinson. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greenfield, Jonas C.The Meaning of פחז.” Pages 3540 in Studies in the Bible and the Ancient Near East, Presented to S.E. Loewenstamm on His Seventieth Birthday. Edited by Y. Avishur and J. Blau. Jerusalem: E. Rubenstein’s, 1978.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greenfield, Jonas C., Michael E. Stone, and Esther Eshel. The Aramaic Levi Document: Edition, Translation, Commentary. Leiden: Brill, 2004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Himmelfarb, Martha. Ascent to Heaven in Jewish and Christian Apocalypses. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.

  • Himmelbarb, Martha. “Earthly Sacrifice and Heavenly Incense: The Law of the Priesthood in Aramaic Levi and Jubilees.” Pages 103122 in Heavenly Realms and Earthly Realities in Late Antique Religions. Edited by Ra’anan S. Boustan and Annette Yoshiko Reed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Himmelbarb, Martha. A Kingdom of Priests: Ancestry and Merit in Ancient Judaism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hultgård, Anders. L’eschatologie des Testaments des Douze Patriarches, vol. 1. Acta Universitatis Upsaleinsis, Historia Religionum 6. Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1977.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kratz, Reinhard G.Temple and Torah: Reflections on the Legal Status of the Pentateuch between Elephantine and Qumran.” Pages 77104 in The Pentateuch as Torah: New Models for Understanding Its Promulgation and Acceptance. Edited by Gary N. Knoppers and Bernard M. Levinson. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kratz, Reinhard G.The Pentateuch in Current Research: Consensus and Debate.” Pages 3162 in The Pentateuch: International Perspectives on Current Research. Edited by Thomas Dozeman, Konrad Schmid, and Baruch J. Schwartz. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Kugler, Robert A. From Patriarch to Priest: The Levi-Priestly Tradition from Aramaic Levi to Testament of Levi. SBL Early Judaism and its Literature 9. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mali, Hillel. “Priestly Instructions in the Aramaic Levi Document and the Order of the Morning Daily Sacrifice.” Megillot 14 (2019): 119138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Milgrom, Jacob. Leviticus 1–16: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary. Vol. 3, Anchor Bible. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1991.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mroczek, Eva. “The Hegemony of the Biblical in the Study of Second Temple Literature.” Journal of Ancient Judaism 6 (2015): 235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mroczek, Eva. The Literary Imagination in Jewish Antiquity. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016.

  • Naiden, F. S. Smoke Signals for the Gods: Ancient Greek Sacrifice from the Archaic through Roman Periods. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nielsen, Kjeld. Incense in Ancient Israel. Leiden: Brill, 1986.

  • Nihan, Christophe. “The Torah between Samaria and Judah: Shechem and Gerizim in Deuteronomy and Joshua.” Pages 187224 in The Pentateuch as Torah: New Models for Understanding Its Promulgation and Acceptance. Edited by Gary N. Knoppers and Bernard M. Levinson. Winona Lake: Eisenbrans, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Pritchard, James B. Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament, 3rd. Edition. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reed, Annette Yoshiko. “Textuality between Death and Memory: The Prehistory and Formation of the Parabiblical Testament.” Jewish Quarterly Review 104.3 (2014): 381412.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Reed, Annette Yoshiko. Demons, Angels, and Writing in Ancient Judaism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020.

  • Reinarz, Jonathan. Past Scents: Historical Perspectives on Smell. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2014.

  • Rhyder, Julia. Centralizing the Cult: The Holiness Legislation in Leviticus 17–26. Forschungen zum Alten Testament 134. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhyder, Julia. “The Reception of Ritual Laws in the Early Second Temple Period.” Pages 390428 in Text and Ritual in the Pentateuch. Edited by Christophe Nihan and Julia Rhyder. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns; Penn State University Press, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sanders, Seth L. From Adapa to Enoch: Scribal Culture and Religious Vision in Judea and Babylon. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2017.

  • Schäfer, Peter. Judeophobia: Attitudes Toward Jews in the Ancient World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1997.

  • Schiffman, Lawrence H.Sacrificial Halakhah in the Fragments of the Aramaic Levi Document from Qumran, the Cairo Geniza, and Mt. Athos Monastery.” Pages 177202 in Reworking the Bible: Apocryphal and Related Texts at Qumran: Proceedings of a Joint Symposium by the Orion Center for the Study of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Associated Literature and the Hebrew University Institute for Advanced Studies Research Group on Qumran, 15–17 January, 2002. Edited by Esther G. Chazon, Devorah Dimant, and Ruth A. Clements. Leiden: Brill, 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schmid, Konrad. “The Persian Imperial Authorization as an Historical Problem and as a Biblical Construct: A Plea for Distinctions in the Current Debate.” Pages 2238 in The Pentateuch as Torah: New Models for Understanding Its Promulgation and Acceptance. Edited by Gary N. Knoppers and Bernard M. Levinson. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stone, Michael E. and J. C. Greenfield. “The First Manuscript of Aramaic Levi Document from Qumran (4QLevi a aram).” Le Muséon 107 (1994): 257281.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stone, Michael Edward. “The Book of Enoch and Judaism in the Third Century B.C.E.”. Catholic Biblical Quarterly 40 (1978): 479492.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Stuckenbruck, Loren T. “Pseudepigraphy and First Person Discourse in the Dead Sea Documents: From the Aramaic Texts to Writings of the Yahad,” in The Dead Sea Scrolls and Contemporary Culture: Proceedings of the International Conference held at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem (July 6–8, 2008). Edited by Adolfo D. Roitman, Lawrence Schiffman, and Shani Tzoref. Leiden: Brill, 2011.

  • van der Kooij, Arie. “The Septuagint of the Pentateuch and Ptolemaic Rule.” Pages 289300 in The Pentateuch as Torah: New Models for Understanding Its Promulgation and Acceptance. Edited by Gary N. Knoppers and Bernard M. Levinson. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Vroom, Jonathan. The Authority of Law in the Hebrew Bible and Early Judaism. Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 187. Leiden: Brill, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Yoo, Philip Y. Ezra and the Second Wilderness. Oxford Theology & Religion Monographs. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.

Content Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 176 176 22
Full Text Views 23 23 2
PDF Views & Downloads 39 39 5