Changing 19th-century socio-economic identities have been a major topic of debate among European historians. Obviously, there are disagreements over the scientific analysis and objectivity of identities research in Lithuanian and Western historical narratives. This is especially relevant when discussing the specific characteristics of urban society. In this article, the author analyses the social identities of the Kaunas burgher elite, and the factors which affected the group in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The theoretical approach of the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu is used to describe the phenomenon. The habitus concept is used to analyse the facts, as it helps to reveal representations of the identification of elites with the city and estate structures (the early Kaunas urban tradition and the new Imperial Russian classes).
The Warmian (Ermland) Braniewo (Braunsberg) burgher Regina Protmann founded the community of St Catherine of Alexandria the Virgin Martyr in 1571, which the Holy See confirmed as a congregation in 1602. The congregation of sisters took an oath of poverty, chastity and obedience, agreeing to serve people, to care for those who were suffering, and to educate society. The ideas of the Sisters of St Catherine reached the Diocese of Samogitia in the 17th century. Its bishop, Jerzy Tyszkiewicz (Tiškevičius), founded the Krakės (Kroki) convent in 1645. Due to political, cultural and other circumstances, the transformation of this convent into a community of the Sisters of St Catherine took longer than expected, happening only in 1689 when the papal nuncio Giaccomo Cantelmi confirmed the community based on the rule of St Catherine. This article seeks to show the foundation process, revealing the differences between the Samogitian Sisters of St Catherine and those in the Warmian bishopric.
This study analyses and shows how the history of the Communist Party of Lithuania (Lietuvos komunistų partija, LKP) was constructed as the history of an organised labour movement in Soviet historiography. Most studies on Lithuanian workers and labour unions written between 1960 and 1988 searched for connections between the LKP and the labour movement, analysed the impact of the LKP on the workers and unions, and sometimes used the terms ‘workers’ or ‘labouring men’ as synonyms for members of the LKP. According to Soviet Lithuanian historians, labour unions, strikes, workers, and the whole organised labour movement that sympathised with Moscow, helped to gain influence among the citizens of Lithuania prior to the occupation in 1940.
Because the labour history of Soviet Lithuania was tied to the history of the Lithuanian Communist Party, it is still hard to draw a line between the history of the workers and the history of the LKP, since the studies on workers, the labour movement and the history of the LKP written during Soviet times are treated as a product of the ideology. It is argued that Soviet Lithuanian labour history must be properly reviewed in order to reevaluate its relationship with contemporary historiography and today’s perception of the labour movement itself.