Since its publication, Emily Brontë’s
Wuthering Heights has given rise to an unusual plurality of interpretations, leading to the impression that the novel somehow resists interpretation. The author offers a new reading of the novel that takes this effect into account by investigating its reason: ambiguity is a thematic focal point and structural key element of the novel.
This study is concerned with the ambiguity of
Wuthering Heights which arises through a complex interplay of distinct but interdependent ambiguities of perception, narration, and the narrated world. In particular, it shows how specific ambiguous utterances (e.g. a clash of implicatures and presuppositions) are linked with each other and contribute to the global ambiguity of the text. In this way, not only the function of ambiguity for understanding
Wuthering Heights is explored but also the function of
Wuthering Heights for understanding ambiguity. The book should thus be of interest not only to Brontë scholars and Victorianists but also to literary scholars and linguists in general.
The present volume provides a critical insight into the relationship of art and war. It shows how artists perceive war and how they depict it, to warn the spectator but to cure their own trauma at the same time.
War causes destruction, loss, and trauma. Many artists have used their art to express feelings and memories related to these losses and their own traumatic experiences. The artwork that came into existence due to such processes reflects on events of our past, but should be considered a warning at the same time. To deal with human suffering means to fully engage with the artist remains of human war experiences. The present volume aims to provide a first critical insight into the relationship between art and war, showing how artists dealt with human losses, destruction, and personal trauma.
War creates veterans and societies are reminded by their existence that violent conflicts had been waged in the past. Even when the wars have been long forgotten by many, veterans are the ones whose fate has been tied to war and destruction.
Societies often struggle with their veterans, especially when they have to address the former soldiers’ traumatic experiences and acknowledge the wounds that hurt beyond the body. While veterans are often a steady reminder of violent conflicts of the past, they are often ignored by their societies, once peace is achieved. Nevertheless, veterans play an important role in postwar contexts as well and their role, their possible influence and impact in the supposedly non-violent world need to be addressed. The present volume discusses the role of veterans in the aftermath of war and shows how they had been treated by and how societies tried to reintegrate them in narratives of the past.
Japan has always been fascinating for foreign observers. This volume will show, how its military has been perceived abroad and what image about the Japanese Army existed between 1853 and 1945 in the minds of those who read and heard stories from the Far East.
When forcefully opened by a US mission in 1853, Japan was transformed by its ruling elites into a strong nation state, whose military and political forces wanted to avoid a colonization by foreign powers. Therefore, Japan’s military capacities were of special interest and the army and navy were westernized very fast. Japanese soldiers became known as “Asia’s Prussians”, and were often described as “gallant enemies”. This image, however, should rapidly change after the First World War. During the battles in China since 1937, and the Pacific since 1941, the Japanese soldiers were often referred to as “devils.“ This volume will take a closer look at the images of Japan’s military abroad to show how these images were created, how they changed and what stimulated the differences with regard to the foreign perception of Japan and its military between 1853 and 1945.
“School as counter-public” is the hermeneutic key with which Ralf Koerrenz interprets the school model of the Jena Plan. Similar to the Dalton-Plan or the Winnetka-Plan, the Jena Plan is one of the most important concepts of alternative schools developed in the first half of the 20th century as part of the international movement for alternative education, the “World Education Fellowship”. Peter Petersen’s “Jena Plan” concept must be understood from his educational philosophical foundations. The didactic levels of action at school (teaching, learning) as well as the reflection of theory in pedagogical practice are made understandable by “school as a counter-public”. Not least with a view to the today’s Jena Plan schools, the question is asked for a context-independent core of what makes a school a Jena Plan school. The opportunities and ambivalences of the model thus become equally visible.
Empirical Form and Religious Function provides a fresh perspective on the rise of empirical apparition narratives in the Anglophone world of the Early Enlightenment era.
Drawing on both well-established and previously unknown sources, Michael Dopffel here offers a fundamental reappraisal of one of the defining narrative genres of the 17th and 18th centuries. Intricately connected to evolving discourses of natural philosophy, Protestant religion and popular literature, the apparition narratives portrayed in this work constitute a hybrid genre whose interpretations and literary functions retained the ambiguity of their subject matter. Simultaneously an empirically approachable phenomena and a religious experience, witnesses and writers translated the spiritual characteristics of apparitions into distinct literary forms, thereby shaping conceptions of ghosts, whether factual or fictional, to this day.
A crucial collection of new insights into a topic too often ignored in military history: the close interrelationship between cities and warfare throughout modern history. Scenes of Aleppo’s war-torn streets may be shocking to the world’s majority urban population, but such destruction would be familiar to urban dwellers as early as the third millennium BCE. While war is often narrated as a clash of empires, nation-states, and ‘civilizations’, cities have been the strategic targets of military campaigns, to be conquered, destroyed, or occupied. Cities have likewise been shaped by war, whether transformed for the purposes of military production, reconstructed after bombardment, or renewed as sites for remembering the costs of war. This conference volume draws on the latest research in military and urban history to understand the critical intersection between war and cities.
West-Eastern mirror discusses the formative cultural traditions in Germany/Europe and China with a special focus on the increasingly important aspects of “Virtue and morality”. At present, there are increasing difficulties in understanding the ‘other’ in their cultural framing. In view of the fact that economic or scientific exchange on an international level is a matter of necessity, in recent years the need to ensure the cultural prerequisites has become even more urgent. First, the title deals with the cultural influences in Europe (Judaism, Christianity, Enlightenment) and China (Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism). In the second part, the focus encompasses a dialogue of European philosophy, with Rousseau, Herbart, Gadamer and Hegel.
The purpose of this study about theological aspects of culture and social ethics is to investigate the relation between the theological tradition arising from Luther and the cultural immateriality which is culturally expressed in material progress and work. It is necessary to remember that it was Protestant theology itself that enabled this secularization process. Protestantism and modernity with its secularization proposal are processes that condition one another. Paul Tillich calls modernity and secularization the “Protestant Era” in the context of the Western culture of economic progress. It was mainly the theological tradition of the Enlightenment that separated the kingdom of the right from the kingdom of the left, law and gospel, creation and redemption, in such a way that the scope of creation became so autonomous that it dismissed the justification through the work of Christ, the gospel.
War Memorials were an important element of nation building, for the invention of traditions, and the establishment of historical traditions. Especially nationalist remembrance in the late 19th century and the memory of the First World War stimulated a memorial boom in the period which the present book is focusing on.
The remembrance of war is nothing particularly new in history, since victories in decisive battles had been of interest since ancient times. However, the age of nationalism and the First World War triggered a new level of war remembrance that was expressed in countless memorials all over the world. The present volume presents the research of international specialists from different disciplines within the Humanities, whose research is dealing with the role of war memorials for the remembrance of conflicts like the First World War and their perceptions within the analyzed societies. It will be shown how memorials – in several different chronological and geographical contexts – were used to remember the dead, remind the survivors, and warn the descendants.