Wurden Papst Pius XII. und die katholische Kirche nach 1945 wegen ihres Verhaltens während der Herrschaft der Nationalsozialisten unverhältnismäßig in den Fokus gerückt?
Mark Edward Ruff untersucht die heftigen Kontroversen über das Verhältnis zwischen der katholischen Kirche und dem NS-Regime, die in der Bundesrepublik zwischen 1945 und 1980 ausbrachen – etwa über Rolf Hochhuths Schauspiel „Der Stellvertreter“ von 1963. Er beleuchtet dabei, warum diese kulturellen Gefechte so viel Kraft kosteten, die Schlagzeilen beherrschten, Klagen vor Gericht auslösten und zum Einschreiten von Außenministerien führten. Nach Ruff waren diese Kontroversen über die Beziehung zwischen Kirche und Nationalsozialismus oftmals Stellvertreterkriege um die Positionierung der Kirche in der „modernen“ Welt – in der Politik, internationalen Beziehungen und den Medien. Im Mittelpunkt dieser Auseinandersetzungen standen in den meisten Fällen Konflikte, die durch die gestiegene politische Bedeutung des Katholizismus und die Integration katholischer Bürgerinnen und Bürger in die Mitte der Gesellschaft ausgelöst wurden.
These essays examine the relation between “philosophy,” an enterprise construed in various ways by Christian theologians, and the exegetical works of Greek and Byzantine interpreters. Though scholars often recognize the significance of philosophical traditions both for allegorical interpretation and for commentaries, they have paid less attention to the role of moral philosophy, for instance, in patristic moral exhortation. These essays explore wide a variety of ways philosophical traditions intersect with Eastern patristic exegesis.
The book expands the history of the Cold War to Eastern European emigrants and their networks.
The “Assembly of Captive European Nations” was a major organisation for Eastern European emigrants in the US since 1954. The cooperation of exiled politicians from nine countries opened up for them new opportunities for lobbying and publications. This book focuses on Estonian contributions to the ACEN. Besides successes, the book reveals troublesome relations with the American authorities, schisms among Europeans and extended national disputes. The ACEN was quickly forgotten after its dissolution in 1972. Based on extensive archival research, this book reflects the ACEN’s aspirations and personalities.
This monograph, which complements the existing body of work on the Armenian diaspora in a Central European context, is the first demographic synthesis devoted to the Armenian community in Old Poland and Austrian Galicia (1772–1860). It is the story of the biological and cultural trajectory of a human life: birth, marriage, childbearing, family life, sickness, old age and death. The author enumerates the Armenian diaspora in Austrian Galicia and poses questions regarding Armenian identity, religious practices and community life. The book includes a discussion of archival sources and contains a selection of the parish family registers (status animarum) in the annex. These documents, which not only enhance the narration but also detail the Armenian families, can stimulate further research and support genealogical investigations.
The main objective of the book is a multi-aspect analysis of the functioning of the Kaliningrad Region in contemporary political reality, both in internal and international dimensions.
The area constitutes a unique enclave in contemporary Europe, being the only part of Russia separated from the mother country, which determines the taking place therein in the dimension of relations: bilateral, multilateral (e.g. EU - Russia, NATO - Russia, Baltic Sea Region cooperation) as well as regional and local cooperation. The book is a result of many years’ work of scientists from Poland, Russia and Sweden, who have been researching the functioning of the Kaliningrad Region in internal and external dimensions.
It is a ‘must to read’ volume for all EU-Russia observers and experts.” - Prof. Dr. Piotr Dutkiewicz, Director of the Center for Governance and Public Management,
Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada “
It is an invaluable guide to analysing and understanding contemporary Russia.” - Prof. Dr. Jaroslav Dvorak, Head of the Department of Public Administration and Political Sciences,
Klaipėda University, Klaipėda, Lithuania
The aim of the study is the analysis of the attitude of Polish political parties towards the Kaliningrad Region in the years 1989-2019. The interest of Polish parties and political groups in the Kaliningrad Region has been observed since the fall of the Soviet Union. The change in the geopolitical situation aroused interest in the possibilities of establishing mutual relations on both sides. The author identifies and analyses the activity of the politicians who represent political parties on the parliamentary and cabinet arena, and the activity of local politicians from the Warmia and Mazury Region (Voivodship). The study presents a cross-section of the attitudes of political parties towards the Russian enclave bordering on Poland.
This paper is devoted to the cooperation linking the Warmia and Mazury Region (Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship) in Poland and the Kaliningrad Region (Kaliningrad Oblast) in Russia. The main aim is to show it from a practical point of view, namely through actual documents, initiatives and actions initiated and implemented in bilateral contacts.
The paper begins by looking at strategic documents (intergovernmental, interregional) which establish the framework for collaborations. Several forms of political cooperation are also described: both those initiated by regional authorities and those governed by state bodies with the participations of regions. It is also shown how some of them have been influenced by international situation and the Polish-Russian political crisis. Then it concentrates on selected areas of cooperation with some examples of common events and tools dedicated to support Polish-Russian initiatives. In this context special attention is given to the sector of tourism. This text also considers how the introduction of the Local Border Traffic changed the reality of cross-border cooperation. It also shows the meaning of the Poland-Russia Cross-border Cooperation Programme as a very concrete tool fostering bilateral relations. Lastly, in its final part the text points out a few issues worth monitoring in the coming months since they may have impact on Polish-Russian interregional cooperations.
The aim of this study is to present and analyse forms of cooperation between local and regional self-government authorities of the Warmia and Mazury Region (Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodeship) and the Kaliningrad Region (Kaliningrad Oblast) in the context of the European Union policies.
East Prussia, the former province of the German Reich, after the Second World War was partitioned between Poland, Lithuania and Russia. Though the province stopped existing, it remained a point of interest in terms of historical politics and remembrance for the inhabitants of the three mentioned countries and Germany. This chapter presents the issues of historical politics and related policy of remembrance to refer them to the particular practices employed in the historical politics. The political history run in Kaliningrad has been given a special attention here.
The initial assumption of this Chapter was an insight into the relations of the Kaliningrad Region and the European Union from a local perspective focused on former East Prussian territory, currently being part of Poland, Russia and Lithuania. The author is convinced that the historical legacy of these lands is an important factor of understanding contemporary political, economic and social realities of the Region.
In the first part, some aspects of the past civilization of native Prussians are discussed – those affecting the formation of the identity of contemporary residents. Long-term resistance to the conquests by the Teutonic Knights facilitated the formation of statehood structures in the areas of the present Baltic Republics.
In the second part, covering the periods of the Teutonic Knights and German Prussia, attention is paid to the European significance of Königsberg as a centre of Lutheran thought and later in the rise of Imperial Germany.
The last two parts cover the period of the Second World War and the post-war period – the destructions as a result of the war and the first post-war years are highlighted as well as the complexity of internal and international relations of the contemporary Kaliningrad Region.
The author’s personal thoughts and opinions have been formulated as “Concluding remarks”.