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Neu übersetzt
Gibt es den „Corpus Johanneum“ oder gibt es gar mehrere Verfasser? Und ist die Johannesapokalypse dem sogenannten Corpus Johanneum zuzurechnen oder ist ihr theologischer Ansatz derart anders, dass sie als Fremdkörper nicht nur gegenüber den anderen johanneischen Schriften, sondern sogar als Sonderling im ganzen Neuen Testament zu gelten hat?
Auch in ihrem dritten Band des Frankfurter Neuen Testaments bleiben Stefan Alkier und Thomas Paulsen ihrer Übersetzungsmethodik treu, welche die neutestamentlichen Texte wörtlich aus dem Koine-Griechisch übersetzt. Das hat erhebliche Folgen für den Wortlaut und das Verständnis dieser Texte – so ist z.B. nicht von „Sünde“ oder „Teufel“, sondern von „Verfehlung“ und vom „Zerwerfer“ die Rede.
„Kaum einen Text glauben heutige Leserinnen und Leser so gut zu kennen wie das Johannesevangelium. Die neue Übersetzung von Stefan Alkier und Thomas Paulsen zeigt, wie falsch wir mit dieser Einschätzung liegen. Philologisch genau, erfrischend sperrig und fern von eingefahrenen Pfaden zeigt sie, wie aufregend und ungewöhnlich dieser Text wirklich ist; damit lädt sie uns dazu ein, ihn in seinem Anspruch ernst zu nehmen und uns auf seine Herausforderung einzulassen.“ Dr. Thomas Schmitz (Professor für Gräzistik an der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn)
Free access
In: Journal of Ancient Judaism
Author: Brachi Elitzur

Abstract

This article discusses the development of a rabbinic tradition that draws on verses from Samuel’s speech dealing with the authority of leaders (1 Sam 12:6–11) against the backdrop of rabbinic political circumstances. In its earliest manifestations, this tradition is integrated into a story describing one of the confrontations concerning the determination of the Jewish calendar. These confrontations occurred in the Beit Midrash in Yavne under the leadership of Rabban Gamliel. The article traces the changes the confrontation underwent during the transitions between the different literary genres and suggests that these changes were influenced by the character of the social tension that existed when each genre was redacted. This article deals with the question of authority, power, and leadership in Palestine in the period of the Sages.

In: Journal of Ancient Judaism
Schöningh, Fink and mentis Religious Studies, Theology and Philosophy E-Books Online, Collection 2022 is the electronic version of the book publication program of Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh, Wilhelm Fink Verlag and mentis Verlag in the field of Religious Studies, Theology and Philosophy from 2022.

Coverage:
Religious Studies, Theology, Philosophy, Christianity, History of Religion, Religion & Society, Missionary Studies
Author: Yonatan Adler

Abstract

The synagogue at Dura-Europos is undoubtedly the most prominent of the Jewish remains uncovered at the site. Dozens of Jewish coins found in excavations throughout the city have merited far less attention. Alfred Bellinger published a list of these coins in 1949; among the corpus of 14,017 coins found altogether at the site, 47 were identified as coins minted in Judea by Jewish rulers. This study offers the first comprehensive presentation and analysis of these Jewish coins. Following a review and analysis of the limited data on all 47 Jewish coins published in the original report, a full report is presented for the six coins from the Dura collection which are currently housed at the Yale University Art Gallery. This is followed by a discussion about the possible reasons why such a large assemblage of Jewish coins found its way in antiquity from Judea to distant Dura-Europos.

In: Journal of Ancient Judaism

Abstract

The question of rabbinic apprehensions of the nonhuman is not frequently listed as paramount in the study of rabbinic legal texts. Yet, nonhumans such as animals, tools, and trees, as well as impersonal forces, such as impurity, fill much of the space within Tannaitic legal traditions. What effect, if any, do these nonhumans have on the Tannaitic subject, and in what ways do they shape the legal traditions of which they are a part? To answer these questions and to understand the relationship between rabbinic law and rabbinic science in relation to the nonhuman, this study takes up assemblage theory. This study sheds light on the relationship of humans and nonhumans in Tannaitic legal traditions and shows that these traditions are predicated on a science of the nonhuman, which itself is predicated on broader underlying ontological commitments. This study also brings clarity to the realism/nominalism debate in rabbinic literature.

In: Journal of Ancient Judaism

Abstract

The modern conception of the self as bifurcated between inner and outer realms has and continues to hold sway as an unchecked presumption in biblical interpretation. The past decade of biblical scholarship, however, has seen a burgeoning effort to problematize this imposition with regard to emotion and interiority. The present study joins this conversation by challenging the presumption of “shame” as an emotional and interior category in the Hebrew Bible, a challenge that has already been initiated but is ripe for further probing. Informed by a practice theory of emotion and embodied cognition, and focusing on the metaphor Shame is Clothing, which appears in Job, Ezekiel, and Psalms, this study proposes material and enactive readings of “shame” wherein so-called shame roots as bwš, klm, and ḥpr center on bodily diminishment and practices of defeat as a matter of relational dynamics and power disparities.

In: Journal of Ancient Judaism
Author: Sanghwan Lee

Abstract

The Book of the Watchers (1 Enoch 1–38; BW) describes a series of punishments that God renders against Asael (10:4–8). Several scholars have tried to identify possible traditions that stand behind these punishments in light of Jewish and Greek literatures. However, Henryk Drawnel recently challenges such attempts, positing a Mesopotamian background. Although Drawnel has shown that interacting with Mesopotamian literatures has something to offer in grasping a fuller understanding of the mentioned passage, this article argues that Greek literatures are still valuable sources, potentially shedding further light on the design of the punishment motifs in BW. In order to demonstrate this supposition, I interact with the myths of Prometheus, Tantalus, and Teiresias. Ultimately, I suggest that scholars should be open to the possibility that various traditions, rather than a single tradition, stand behind the punitive descriptions in BW 10:4–8.

In: Journal of Ancient Judaism
Author: Eyal Regev

Abstract

Three distinct cultural phenomena emerged in the Hasmonean period (152–37 BCE): the concept of Gentile impurity, full body immersion in a ritual bath, and (relative) abstinence from the use of imported foreign pottery. This article examines the historical and archaeological evidence for these three traits: their chronology, geographical distribution, and interrelationship. All three relate to the contact between Judaeans and non-Judaeans. They symbolize social boundaries that were created to foster the ethnic identity of the Judaeans vis-à-vis local Gentiles. The creation of these ethnic boundaries was encouraged by the Hasmonean state both because they corresponded to the Hasmonean ideology and political aims, and because state formation usually contributes to the development of ethnic identity.

In: Journal of Ancient Judaism
A New Foundation for the Study of Parables
The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke introduces the world of the ancient fable to biblical scholarship and argues that Jesus’s parables in Luke’s gospel belong to the ancient fable tradition.
Jesus is regarded as the first figure in history to use the parable genre with any regularity—a remarkable historical curiosity that serves as the foundation for many assumptions in New Testament scholarship. The Fables of Jesus in the Gospel of Luke challenges this consensus, situating the parables within a literary context unknown to biblical scholarship: the ancient fable. After introducing the ancient fable, the “parables” of Jesus in Luke’s gospel are used as a testing ground to demon - strate that they are identical to first-century fables. This challenges many conven - tional assumptions about parables, Luke’s gospel, and the relationship of Jesus to the storytelling traditions of the Mediterranean world. This study offers multitudes of new parallels to the otherwise enigmatic parable tradition, opens an exciting new venue for comparative exploration, and lays a new foundation upon which to study the fables of Jesus.