This article explores the Soviet mission to emancipate Afghan women during the Soviet war in Afghanistan through a detailed reading of the stenogram of a 1982 seminar in Moscow designed as an exchange of ideas and experiences between leading members of the Committee for Soviet Women and the Democratic Organization of Women of Afghanistan. Approaching this episode as a moment in the quest to find new forms of modernity – Communist, Islamic, or Western – in Afghanistan, the article shows how Soviet women's representatives repeatedly played up the important of the hujum in 1930s Soviet Central Asia as a model program for Afghan and, to some extent, all Third World societies. At the same time, however, the Afghan women at the conference, while avid Communists, articulated their own vision of women's emancipation for Afghanistan which did not reject the veil, a vision at odds with that articulated by their Soviet 'teachers.'
Sevastopol, since becoming a part of independent Ukraine in 1991 (and part of the Ukrainian SSR for decades before) has consistently and overwhelmingly voted for pro-Russian candidates in each national election. While many political commentators have noted the demographics of predominately Russian speakers and the presence of the Russian fleet in the ports to explain recent voting patterns, we must also take note of postwar myth creation. Although since 1917 Sevastopol has been juridically Soviet or Ukrainian, residents and outsiders alike usually view Sevastopol as a Russian city. The development of local identification after World War II by the military, local officials, and guidebook authors helps to explain how Sevastopol so easily shed its identification with the Soviet Union while also avoiding identification with Ukraine.
The article is focused on the bureaucracy of generals A. Denikin's and P. Vrangel's military dictatorships during the Russian Civil War (1918–1920). For the first time in Russian historiography it contains analysis of the economic, political and moral factors, which influenced the bureaucracy, its social structure and living conditions, red tape and corruption as the main features of the military dictatorships' governing bodies and the main reasons for their poor performance.
In modern Russia problems of civil society's genesis discussed very widely. The author consecutively examines the social-cultural practices, which were generated by more then 70 years of Soviet history, and were reflected in low, constitutions and other legislative acts. He illustrated how these practices influenced the interaction between power and society, especially in labor and everyday Soviet life. The general attention was devoted to analysis of action of these practices after fall of Soviet system – how its may restrain or stimulate formation of civil society.
The article is comparative analysis of two waves of Russian Jewish immigration to the United States. It based on archival documents and sociological studied that were conducted in Pittsburgh. The authors replicated the sociological conducted in 1968 with a new group of immigrants and compared the results focusing primarily on the areas of adaptation, assimilation, and religious observance as well as other experiences in becoming part of what is known as the American “melting pot”.
The creation of the New Soviet Person was a constant concern of the Bolsheviks and this concern manifested itself in physical culture as well as in other areas. The desire to sweep away the cobwebs of the old system and replace these with the new Soviet culture infected and infused the political, social and cultural discourse. Physical culture, as this paper shows, was a vital element in the overall attempt to help construct the new society and new person. By offering its people a lifestyle reflective of Soviet ideals, physical culture had the potential to help construct a new generation of Soviet citizens.