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Übersetzung und wissenschaftliche Redaktion von Bernard Wiaderny
Editor / Translator: Bernard Wiaderny
Zwei führende polnische Zeithistoriker schildern die jüngste Geschichte ihres Landes vom deutschen Überfall 1939 bis zur Gegenwart.
Andrzej Friszke und Antoni Dudek sind nicht nur namhafte polnische Historiker, sondern auch Zeitzeugen und scharfe Beobachter der aktuellen politischen Entwicklung ihres Landes. Mit dem Schwerpunkt auf Politik- und Sozialgeschichte geben sie einen Überblick über die Geschicke des Landes, beginnend mit der Zeit der deutschen Besatzung Polens, und die Etablierung des kommunistischen Systems. Die Rolle der Opposition und der katholischen Kirche in der Volksrepublik, die Entstehung der Gewerkschaft „Solidarność“ (an der Friszke aktiv beteiligt war) sowie die politische Transformation seit 1989 werden breit behandelt. Besonderen Wert gewinnt das Buch durch die Berücksichtigung der zeithistorisch bislang kaum erfassten 2000er Jahre.
Die polnische Oppositionsbewegung und ihre Unabhängige Post in den 1980er Jahren
Series:  FOKUS, Volume: 3
Author: Silke Plate
In den 1980er Jahren entwickelte sich in oppositionellen Kreisen Polens ein unabhängiger Publikationsumlauf, der sogenannte „Zweite Umlauf“ ( drugi obieg). Dieser etablierte sich außerhalb der staatlichen Zensur.
Zum „Zweiten Umlauf“ gehörten nicht nur Texte in illegal erscheinenden Büchern und Untergrundzeitschriften. Es wurden auch nachgeahmte Briefmarken und Poststempel veröffentlicht. Die nachgeahmten postalischen Medien hatten keine Frankierfunktion. Als Sammelobjekt dienten sie der Bestätigung einer Gemeinschaft von Gleichgesinnten. Der Erlös aus dem Verkauf der Untergrundbriefmarken floss weitestgehend in die Unterstützung oppositioneller Aktivitäten zurück; es bestand aber auch der Verdacht des finanziellen Missbrauchs durch Privatpersonen.
Volume Editors: Karsten Brüggemann and Mati Laur
Die Forschungen zur baltischen Geschichte ( FzbG) ist eine seit 2006 erscheinende Publikationsreihe der estnischen Akademischen Historischen Gesellschaft (Akadeemiline ajalooselts). Sie verstehen sich als ein akademisches Journal im Bereich der historischen area studies.
Über den jeweils engen sprachlichen Rahmen der einzelnen Staaten Estland, Lettland und Litauen hinaus soll nicht zuletzt die innerbaltische fachliche Kommunikation gefördert werden. Die FzbG pflegen einen regionalen Schwerpunkt auf dem „historischen“ Baltikum (Estland, Livland und Kurland, d.h. ungefähr die heutigen Republiken Estland und Lettland), doch sind auch Beiträge zur litauischen Geschichte willkommen. Der zeitliche Rahmen der Artikel reicht aber von der Frühzeit bis zur post-sowjetischen Periode. Darüber hinaus sind insbesondere Beiträgen willkommen, die sich mit den überregionalen Zusammenhängen in Nordosteuropa auseinandersetzen.
In: Forschungen zur baltischen Geschichte
In: Forschungen zur baltischen Geschichte
In: Forschungen zur baltischen Geschichte
Author: Mihkel Mäesalu

Summary

The Significance of Papal Charters on the Incorporation of the Order of the Swordbrothers into the Teutonic Order during the Conflicts of the Order with the Archbishops of Riga until the End of the 15th Century

Pope Gregory IX issued four almost identical charters in May 1237, which were addressed to the Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, the Swordbrothers, the Bishops of Riga, Tartu and Osilia, the Papal Legate to Livonia and Prussia. The charters determined the legal foundations for the incorporation of the Order of the Swordbrothers into the Teutonic Order. The focus of this paper is on the importance of these charters for the troubled relations of the Teutonic Order in Livonia and the Archbishops of Riga during the following centuries.

Both parties of the conflict made use of the charters of Gregory IX, usually at the Papal Curia, but the Archbishop and the Canons of Riga employed them more often than the Teutonic Order. The charters were also referred to in negotiations between the parties in Livonia itself, but the sources on these meetings are rather scanty. The Church of Riga employed the charters as a basis for their accusations against the Teutonic Order, mainly to enforce their claim that the Order in Livonia is going against its original functions – to protect the church and its missionary activities, and fight the heathens. The Teutonic Order on the other hand used the charters to claim its independence from episcopal jurisdiction. The text of the charters was never used in its entirety. Rather some relevant passages were chosen to support an argument. In some cases, the charters were employed to support claims which were even contrary to its text. It seems that often the charters were referred through an earlier text which made use of them, without consulting the original charters at all.

Gregory’s charters were also the basis for an alternative view of the status of Medieval Livonia, which was a rather loosely connected part of the Holy Roman Empire. The Canons of Riga found a short passage in the charters – “the aforementioned lands (i.e Medieval Livonia; M. M.) are said to belong to the right and ownership of Saint Peter” – which they used as a basis for a claim that Livonia was actually the property of the Pope, which had been given over to the lordship of the Bishops and the Teutonic Order. These claims were first put forward at the turn of the 13th and 14th centuries, but did not receive papal acknowledgement. The claims resurfaced in the years 1479–1482 in a situation where the Teutonic Order had gained the support of Holy Roman Emperor Friedrich III. Now the Pope conceded to the claims of clerics in Riga and used this alleged legal status of Livonia as papal property to annul the charters Friedrich III had issued in favour of the Teutonic Order.

In: Forschungen zur baltischen Geschichte
Author: Lea Kõiv

Summary

The „Christian Church Order of the City of Tallinn“

The draft of Tallinn’s Christian Church Order (Entwurf der „Christlichen Kirchenordnung der Stadt Reuall“) is kept in the Tallinn City Archives and is believed to be the only set of rules of its kind developed for this city. While the order is an integral part of Reval’s and Estonia’s ecclesiastical history during the early modern period, it has so far mostly attracted the attention of researchers as a source for the history of books, Lutheran ecclesiastical art and funeral traditions. This article provides a first closer look at this document with a focus on its character. To do so, the Church Order is viewed within the context of the reformation and the evolution of church institutions and religious life in Tallinn. The paper discusses the conditions of its production and its background and theological argumentation is also analysed. Until now, there has been no agreement on when exactly the order was finalized and different years have been suggested – this article, however, establishes the date of the production of this draft order as 1606.

The completion of this draft of the Church Order is an important milestone in the evolution of church life in Reval. It systematically summarises and describes the rules that had been developed for ecclesiastical life in the city within the context of the changes that had taken place from the time of the Reformation in the 1520s until the beginning of the 17th century. The draft was actually supposed to serve only as an initial guideline, however, the rules and norms described in it formed the main basis of ecclesiastical life until 1692 when the 1686 Swedish ecclesiastical law came into effect in Reval. The substantial, 94-folio-page Church Order as a practical manual for the church in 17th century Tallinn will remain a desideratum for future research.

The Entwurf der „Christlichen Kirchenordnung der Stadt Reuall“ deserves closer attention within the wider context of ecclesiastical history. As one of many set of rules developed as a result of the Reformation and a relatively late example of the genre, the order follows the example of Lübeck’s Kirchenordnung (1531) by Johannes Bugenhagen, a pioneer of Lutheran ecclesiastical law, and the ecclesiastical code of Saxony (1580) by Jacob Andreae, one of the authors of the Book of Concord – the ecclesiastical standard that marked the beginning of a new Lutheran doctrine. As such, the Tallinn Order reflects Lutheran customs that were widely followed and accepted by the 17th century. As is common for Lutheran codes, the rules and norms described in the order draw on the guiding principle of the Reformation – the sola scriptura – and rely on the Bible and famous theologists’ writings, mainly Martin Luther’s and Johannes Bugenhagen’s. The reception of Lübeck’s and Saxony’s Kirchenordnung, as well as the Bible and other Lutheran writings in Tallinn’s order each deserve separate analysis.

In: Forschungen zur baltischen Geschichte