This book aims to create an integral picture of the social, economic and cultural history of the Jews in Lithuania during the course of more than six hundred years – from the Middle Ages to the 1990s. It is a translation of the study “Lietuvos žydai. Istorinė studija” (Engl. “Lithuanian Jews. Historical study”), published in Lithuanian in 2012. The Book was written by an interna-tional group of scholars from Lithuania, Israel, the United States of America and Germany.
The world of Lithuanian Jewry is reconstructed through different aspects of the development of community and society: demography, social and economic activity, self-government institutions of the community, cultural and religious movements, literature and the press, education, discriminative policy of the authorities and relations with the dominant church, segregation, assimilation and changes of identity, anti-Judaism and anti-Semitism, and the Holocaust.
A crucial collection of new insights into a topic too often ignored in military history: the close interrelationship between cities and warfare throughout modern history. Scenes of Aleppo’s war-torn streets may be shocking to the world’s majority urban population, but such destruction would be familiar to urban dwellers as early as the third millennium BCE. While war is often narrated as a clash of empires, nation-states, and ‘civilizations’, cities have been the strategic targets of military campaigns, to be conquered, destroyed, or occupied. Cities have likewise been shaped by war, whether transformed for the purposes of military production, reconstructed after bombardment, or renewed as sites for remembering the costs of war. This conference volume draws on the latest research in military and urban history to understand the critical intersection between war and cities.
War Memorials were an important element of nation building, for the invention of traditions, and the establishment of historical traditions. Especially nationalist remembrance in the late 19th century and the memory of the First World War stimulated a memorial boom in the period which the present book is focusing on.
The remembrance of war is nothing particularly new in history, since victories in decisive battles had been of interest since ancient times. However, the age of nationalism and the First World War triggered a new level of war remembrance that was expressed in countless memorials all over the world. The present volume presents the research of international specialists from different disciplines within the Humanities, whose research is dealing with the role of war memorials for the remembrance of conflicts like the First World War and their perceptions within the analyzed societies. It will be shown how memorials – in several different chronological and geographical contexts – were used to remember the dead, remind the survivors, and warn the descendants.
With the end of the Second World War, all its violence, war crimes, and sufferings as well as the atomic threat of the Cold War period, societies began to gradually remember wars in a different way. The glorious or honorable element of the age of nationalism was transformed into a rather dunning one, while peace movements demanded an end of war itself.
To analyze these changes and to show how war was remembered after the end of the Second World War, the present volume assembles the work of international specialists who deal with this particular question from different national and international perspectives. The contributions analyze the role of soldiers, perpetrators, and victims of different conflicts, including the Second World War. They show which motivational settings led to the erection of war memorials reflecting the values and historical traditions of the second half of the 20th and the 21st centuries. Thus, this interdisciplinary volume explores how war is commemorated and how its actors and victims are perceived around the globe.
Reflecting on the work of one of the field’s most influential scholars, the twenty essays in this book explore the evolution and application of Holocaust historiography, identify key insights into genocidal settings and point to gaps in our knowledge of humanity’s most haunting problem.Why do they kill?The publication in 1992 of Christopher R. Browning’s “Ordinary Men” raised crucial, previously unasked questions about the Holocaust: what made the members of a German police battalion – “middle-aged family men of working- and lower-class background” – become mass murderers of Jewish children, women, and men? How does motivation tie in with other factors that prompt participation in the “final solution”? And what can survivor accounts convey about genocide perpetration? Reflecting on the work of one of the field’s most influential scholars, the twenty essays in this book explore the evolution and application of Holocaust historiography, identify key insights into genocidal settings and point to gaps in our knowledge of humanity’s most haunting problem.
In the #MeToo era, the scourge of sexual violence in society has come into new focus. It has become clear that women and men have been, and are, victimized to an extent that many had previously not realized. But this invisibility has largely been aided by a history of silencing victims and of impunity for perpetrators. Wartime and military sexual violence has similar patterns of invisibility, silence and impunity. Furthermore, sexual violence in wartime and beyond is a phenomenon that cannot be divorced from broader social, economic and political issues. It is this dual focus on sexual violence itself and its contexualization that lies at the heart of this volume. This volume probes new directions in understanding sexual violence during conflict, as well as analyzing ethnicity, masculinity and their relationships to sexual violence.
Dieses Buch erkundet die umkämpften deutschen Erinnerungen an die sogenannten Befreiungskriege gegen Napoleon (1813–1815) im langen 19. Jahrhundert. Die Zeit der Antinapoleonischen Kriege zwischen 1806 und 1815 nahm lange eine Schlüsselposition in der Geschichtsschreibung und im nationalen Gedächtnis des deutschsprachigen Raums ein, da die kollektive Erinnerung an diese Kriege eine zentrale Bedeutung für die Ausformung von konkurrierenden Vorstellungen der deutschen Nation und Nationalidentität hatte. Diese Erinnerung wurde nicht nur von politischen Interessen, sondern auch von regionalen, sozialen und geschlechtsspezifischen Differenzen geformt. Das Buch untersucht das umkämpfte Gedächtnis nicht nur anhand der populären, militärischen und akademischen Geschichtsschreibung, sondern auch sehr viel breitenwirksamerer Erinnerungsmedien wie Memoiren und Romane sowie kultureller Praktiken, insbesondere Feiern und Symbolen.
It is clear that the Lutheran Reformation greatly contributed to changes in theological and legal ideas – but what was the extent of its impact on the field of contract law? Legal historians have extensively studied the contract doctrines developed by Roman Catholic theologians and canonists; however, they have largely neglected Martin Luther, Philip Melanchthon, Johann Aepinus, Martin Chemnitz, Friedrich Balduin and many other reformers. This book focuses on those neglected voices of the Reformation, exploring their role in the history of contract law. These men mapped out general principles to counter commercial fraud and dictated norms to regulate standard economic transactions. The most learned jurists, such as Matthias Coler, Peter Heige, Benedict Carpzov, and Samuel Stryk, among others, studied these theological teachings and implemented them in legal tenets. Theologians and jurists thus cooperated in resolving contract law problems, especially those concerning interest and usury.
Today, we particularly encounter the Mediterranean Other in the “refugee”. Scientific, political and public discourses on the Mediterranean are — continuously or most recently? — determined by hegemonial perspectives. Considering other perceptions, interpretations and representations seems to be impossible in light of financial crises, the new South, blurring borders and unclear securities. The contributions in this volume dispute this form of thinking. The research papers do not only encourage the reader to critically examine current political developments. They also provide a framework for Mediterranean minorities, nongovernmental groups and diasporas in search of their own voice. With contributions by Cristina Balma Tivola, Julia Blandfort, Paolo Giaccaria, Shlomo Lotan, Anna Piotrowska, Kristin Platt, Christopher Schliephake, Paul Silverstein, Anna Tozzi Di Marco, Felix Wiedemann.
Rivers in the Mediterranean have always been hotspots of social formation. From antiquity to the present, rivers were important sources of fresh water, transport routes and energy suppliers as well as spaces of interaction between sea, coast and hinterland. This volume takes up recent debates on the spatial turn and global history, which have fundamentally changed notions of the Mediterranean as a natural given and of larger areas as well-defined entities. After an introduction to the relevant research contexts, it offers a collection of articles on the conceptualization of river histories, the Mediterranean and its rivers, and river studies from around the globe