The purpose of the volume is to explore how specific historical and socio-cultura conditions of late antiquity shaped the development of Christian thought.
The authors of the volume analyse various aspects of these conditions, particularly those of a textual and institutional nature, as they are reflected in the hermeneutic and philosophical principles of Christian discourse. This focus sheds new light on unexplored features of Christian literature, such as the influence of manuscript culture, early church institutions and practices, exegetical techniques, and philosophical curricula.
In der religiösen Kultur des Mittelalters spielten Visionen eine viel größere Rolle als in allen früheren oder folgenden Epochen. Sie traten in den verschiedensten Lebensbereichen auf, darunter bisher noch kaum beachtete. Ein Magier schafft sich seine eigene Welt aus visionär eingegebenen Ritualen, Zauberer werden visionär entlarvt, das Wesen der Nekromantie basiert auf Totenerscheinungen, die Gesichter der Hexen und der Besessenen zeichnen eine Gegenwelt voller Dämonen. Um diese Phänomene zu verstehen, ist ein psychologischer Zugang unabdingbar: Inwieweit lassen sich auf die mittelalterlichen Visionen moderne Studien zur Halluzination anwenden? Sind Visionen generell als Krankheitssymptome zu verstehen und differieren mittelalterliche und moderne Psychen? Wie wurden Visionäre im Urteil der Zeitgenossen rezipiert? Ein Ausblick auf Vision und Visionsliteratur in der Neuzeit beschließt den Band, wobei auch die konträre Entwicklung im Katholizismus und Protestantismus thematisiert wird.
This innovative study makes a fresh contribution to Augustine’s study of grace and the Trinity. Through a close historical-contextual analysis of De trinitate 8-10 and De spiritu et littera, the dissertation demonstrates that a crucial pattern of ‘love rescuing knowledge’ can be seen to be present in both works. Augustine is also shown, in both works, to have a keen interest in discussing the theme of human perfection.In uncovering linkages between Augustine’s reflections on grace and the Trinity in these works, as well as in his other writings, this study makes the wider claim that these two famous theological themes should be explored in concert with one another, rather than be treated separately. The nascent Pelagian controversy is considered as an important historical background, and the dissertation makes use of the most up-to-date scholarship on Platonism and biblical exegesis.
It is clear that the Lutheran Reformation greatly contributed to changes in theological and legal ideas – but what was the extent of its impact on the field of contract law? Legal historians have extensively studied the contract doctrines developed by Roman Catholic theologians and canonists; however, they have largely neglected Martin Luther, Philip Melanchthon, Johann Aepinus, Martin Chemnitz, Friedrich Balduin and many other reformers. This book focuses on those neglected voices of the Reformation, exploring their role in the history of contract law. These men mapped out general principles to counter commercial fraud and dictated norms to regulate standard economic transactions. The most learned jurists, such as Matthias Coler, Peter Heige, Benedict Carpzov, and Samuel Stryk, among others, studied these theological teachings and implemented them in legal tenets. Theologians and jurists thus cooperated in resolving contract law problems, especially those concerning interest and usury.
With a tradition of almost five hundred years the Jesuit order has repeatedly produced original thinkers from various fields, thus enriching Western culture.
This book introduces eight Jesuit thinkers: Francisco Suárez, Baltasar Gracián, Teilhard de Chardin, Henri de Lubac, Bernard Lonergan, Karl Rahner, Oswald von Nell-Breuning und Michel de Certeau. They succeeded in their own time by absorbing the discoveries and developments of modern philosophy and science in order to reconcile them with the Christian tradition. In this way, they have made Christianity understandable and attractive to modern man.
Their contributions in the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences are also important for questions and problems of the present and remain a source of inspiration.
Just about fifty years ago, in its declaration on religious freedom at the Second Vatican Council, the Catholic Church programmatically dispensed with political coercion as a means of enforcing its claim to truth. This act of self-imposed restriction with regard to religious claims to truth is exceptional in the history of religions. It is still extremely difficult to explain even today how such a traditional institution as the Catholic Church could have altered its position so fundamentally. In this volume the authors dispute how the Church came to its position, what the reasons and motives were for its repositioning, what shape this process of change took, and the steps involved in the change: What were the characteristics, circumstances and dynamics of the path of Catholicism to recognizing religious freedom?
The attitude of the Catholic church, its bishops, priests and members from 1933 to 1945 is still one of the most controversial topics of contemporary history. Alignment or resistance, collaboration or distance – these are the poles of the controversy up to present day. The dispute over Pope Pius XII. and the holocaust is an especially fierce row.
Well-known historians lead through the no longer transparent batch of assured facts and persevering historical clichés, of historical insights and moral judgements and prejudices. This book provides a reliable guideline through the widely branched and complex landscape of research and opinion. Those who want to discuss the role of the Catholic church in the Third Reich seriously cannot do without this comprehensive survey.
The handbook of fundamental theology is the result of twenty years of teaching and research and has already appeared in seven different languages; a Chinese edition is on the way. Hans Waldenfels held the chair at the university of Bonn from 1977–1997, where the former Pope Benedict XVI. – Joseph Ratzinger – began his scholarly career. Waldenfels came to Bonn after he had lived and worked in Japan for ten years where he experienced a completely different language and culture.
In Japan as well as in other parts of Asia, inculturation became a life experience for him. Following the three classical topics of fundamental theology – God, Jesus Christ, the Church – Waldenfels asks how they fit into the different contexts of ethnic, cultural, religious and ideological contexts of life. Finally he reflects on the process of Christian theology. The handbook shows that modern Christian theology needs a profound knowledge and analysis of the diversity of human and social life. At the same time an equally deep involvement in the mystery of the divine as it appears in the life and death of Jesus Christ. It calls for a strong connection between historical awareness and an insatiable desire of the infinite Beyond.
From the outset, Christian theology was occupied with the question about the Son of God born as a child, and particularly with the birth of Jesus. Not until the late Middle Ages did artistic depictions begin to suggest the familiar atmosphere with which we associate Christmas celebrations today. During that time, artists transferred the event of God's incarnation into the environs of the affiuent European city-states, and they placed their conceptualizations of nature into surroundings not unlike our own. This exhibition presents the Christmas story as observed in European book illumination from around the fifteenth/sixteenth centuries in German, Flemish, French, and ltalian manuscripts. They belong to the most beautiful and valuable codices of this epoch held by the Bavarian State Library, and present illustrations of the Christmas story from the annunciation to the flight to Egypt.