This study brings together all ancient evidence to tell the story of the divine name, YHWH, as it travels in Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek through the Second Temple period, the most formative era of Judaism.
During the Second Temple period (516 BCE–70 CE), Jews became reticent to speak and write the divine name, YHWH, also known by its four letters in Greek as the tetragrammaton. Priestly, pious, and scribal circles limitted the use of God’s name, and then it disappeared. The variables are poorly understood and the evidence is scattered. This study brings together all ancient Jewish literary and epigraphic evidence in Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek to describe how, when, and in what sources Jews either used or avoided the divine name. Instead of a diachronic contrast from use to avoidance, as is often the scholarly assumption, the evidence suggests diverse and overlapping naming practices that draw specific meaning from linguistic, geographic, and social contexts.
Medicine, ethics, and theology embrace various ideas and concepts regarding human suffering – ranging from pain, suffering from loneliness, a lack of meaning or finitude, to a religious understanding of suffering, grounded in a suffering and compassionate God.
In the practices of clinical medical ethics and health care chaplaincy, these diverse concepts overlap. What kind of conflicts arise from different concepts in patient care and counseling, and how should they be dealt with in a reflective way? Fostering international interdisciplinary scientific conversations, the book aims to deepen the discussion in medical ethics concerning the understanding of suffering, and the caring and counseling of patients.
These essays examine the relation between “philosophy,” an enterprise construed in various ways by Christian theologians, and the exegetical works of Greek and Byzantine interpreters. Though scholars often recognize the significance of philosophical traditions both for allegorical interpretation and for commentaries, they have paid less attention to the role of moral philosophy, for instance, in patristic moral exhortation. These essays explore wide a variety of ways philosophical traditions intersect with Eastern patristic exegesis.
A rare scholarly attempt to focus on the last decade of Augustine’s life, this volume highlights the themes and concerns that occupied the aged bishop of Hippo and led him to formulate some of his central notions in the most radical fashion.
Augustine of Hippo’s last decade from 420 to 430 witnessed the completion of some of his most influential works, from the
City of God to the
Unfinished Work against Julian of Eclanum, from
On the Trinity to the
Literal Commentary on Genesis. During this period Augustine remained fully engaged as bishop and administrator, but also began to curate his legacy, revising his previous works and pushing many of his earlier ideas to novel and at times radical conclusions. Yet, this last period of Augustine’s life has received only modest scholarly attention. With a cast of international scholars, the present volume opens a conversation and makes the case that the late (wild) Augustine deserves at least as much attention as the Augustine of the Confessions.
In recent years, there has been significant scholarly focus on John Chrysostom’s appropriation of ancient psychagogy, demonstrating that he was a skilled Christian physician of the soul who sought to promote the somatic and psychological health of his congregation by proposing preaching and various ascetic disciplines as medical treatments.
In these studies, however, relatively little attention has been devoted to his use of philosophical therapy in relation to almsgiving. To address this, this book aims to take a closer look at Chrysostom’s view of almsgiving and soul therapy within the context of ancient philosophical therapy. Ancient philosophers identified passions (πάθη), desires, and distorted thought as the diseases of the soul and developed various kinds of cognitive and behavioural remedies to cure these. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach between Greco-Roman philosophy and social ethics in early Christianity, particularly in the tradition of the Greek Fathers, what follows pursues a giver-centered analysis which has largely been ignored in the previous receiver-oriented research.
This volume explores the long-standing tensions between such notions as soul and body, spirit and flesh, in the context of human immortality and bodily resurrection.
The discussion revolves around late antique views on the resurrected human body and the relevant philosophical, medical and theological notions that formed the background for this topic. Soon after the issue of the divine-human body had been problematized by Christianity, it began to drift away from vast metaphysical deliberations into a sphere of more specialized bodily concepts, developed in ancient medicine and other natural sciences. To capture the main trends of this interdisciplinary dialogue, the contributions in this volume range from the 2nd to the 8th centuries CE, and discuss an array of figures and topics, including Justin, Origen, Bar Daisan, and Gregory of Nyssa.
The purpose of the volume is to explore how specific historical and socio-cultura conditions of late antiquity shaped the development of Christian thought.
The authors of the volume analyse various aspects of these conditions, particularly those of a textual and institutional nature, as they are reflected in the hermeneutic and philosophical principles of Christian discourse. This focus sheds new light on unexplored features of Christian literature, such as the influence of manuscript culture, early church institutions and practices, exegetical techniques, and philosophical curricula.
This innovative study makes a fresh contribution to Augustine’s study of grace and the Trinity. Through a close historical-contextual analysis of De trinitate 8-10 and De spiritu et littera, the dissertation demonstrates that a crucial pattern of ‘love rescuing knowledge’ can be seen to be present in both works. Augustine is also shown, in both works, to have a keen interest in discussing the theme of human perfection.In uncovering linkages between Augustine’s reflections on grace and the Trinity in these works, as well as in his other writings, this study makes the wider claim that these two famous theological themes should be explored in concert with one another, rather than be treated separately. The nascent Pelagian controversy is considered as an important historical background, and the dissertation makes use of the most up-to-date scholarship on Platonism and biblical exegesis.
It is clear that the Lutheran Reformation greatly contributed to changes in theological and legal ideas – but what was the extent of its impact on the field of contract law? Legal historians have extensively studied the contract doctrines developed by Roman Catholic theologians and canonists; however, they have largely neglected Martin Luther, Philip Melanchthon, Johann Aepinus, Martin Chemnitz, Friedrich Balduin and many other reformers. This book focuses on those neglected voices of the Reformation, exploring their role in the history of contract law. These men mapped out general principles to counter commercial fraud and dictated norms to regulate standard economic transactions. The most learned jurists, such as Matthias Coler, Peter Heige, Benedict Carpzov, and Samuel Stryk, among others, studied these theological teachings and implemented them in legal tenets. Theologians and jurists thus cooperated in resolving contract law problems, especially those concerning interest and usury.
Just about fifty years ago, in its declaration on religious freedom at the Second Vatican Council, the Catholic Church programmatically dispensed with political coercion as a means of enforcing its claim to truth. This act of self-imposed restriction with regard to religious claims to truth is exceptional in the history of religions. It is still extremely difficult to explain even today how such a traditional institution as the Catholic Church could have altered its position so fundamentally. In this volume the authors dispute how the Church came to its position, what the reasons and motives were for its repositioning, what shape this process of change took, and the steps involved in the change: What were the characteristics, circumstances and dynamics of the path of Catholicism to recognizing religious freedom?