The Impertinent We. Identity Politics, Toleration and Democratic Education
The aim of this contribution is to reconstruct the connections between the various conceptions and practices of identity politics with the different forms of (in-)tolerance that they exhibit. My aim is to clarify the specific role identity politics should and should not play in the context of liberal democracies in general, as well as democratic education in particular. In order to do so I develop a liberal perfectionist justification of democratic education and education for tolerance that provides a normative framework for a universalistic conception of identity politics.
Art as Formation of the Body. Pedagogical and Aesthetic Concepts Between Monism, Tectology and Biotechnology at the Beginning of the 20th Century
The article focuses on various scientific reflections at the beginning of the 20th century, which converged in László Moholy-Nagy’s pedagogical theory of art to form the idea of modelling the body through art. Aspects of monism, tectology and biotechnology formed a concept that can be understood as the pedagogical influence of art on the body and consciousness with the help of its specifically indirect mode of action.
Tolerance is outlined as willingness to accept characteristics of humans, behaviour, or beliefs and attitudes that are different from one’s own, although one might not agree with them or disapprove them. In education, different theoretical perspectives and methodological approaches can be taken that address different meanings of the concept. An overview is presented, and it is discussed in more detail how research on expertise can help to overcome ethical challenges that are related to issues of tolerance. Examples from a series of empirical studies are provided.
Today it is largely undisputed that tolerance is required. The pedagogical question, however, is how a tolerant attitude pedagogically can be learned. The article is devoted to this question by first attempting to determine the concept of tolerance historically and systematically and then relating this understanding to the problem of teachability. In view of this it is also made clear to what extent an educational discussion of tolerance differs from a political and legal one.