This article offers a broad analysis of the “name issue,” its origins, background and the challenges ahead in light of the Prespa agreement. It posits the historical perspective of both identities, assesses the positions maintained by the parties during the political and diplomatic dispute settlement process and presents the concerns of both parties regarding the agreement. Given the content of the Prespa agreement, the article aims at mapping its essential theoretical frame, explaining the key arrangements in the Prespa agreement and identifying the challenges associated with its implementation that might stand in the way of the accomplishment of its purported “historic” mission of settling the long-lasting disagreements between the two parties, offering some recommendations in that respect.
This article focuses on the relation between EU leverage and domestic elites related to the differential impact of conditionality in the case of the Republic of North Macedonia. The main focus is on the influence of the low credibility of the membership perspective on the effectiveness of EU political conditionality in North Macedonia. Additionally, it examines to what extent the legitimacy of the process is determined by domestic factors. The domestic political elites strategically raise the domestic costs to the level where Europeanization becomes a highly costly process and external influences such as political isolation or rewards given in the process seem to have very weak results. The article introduces the concept of the “leverage trap” – a political discourse devised by domestic political elites apropos the EU, in turn used to increase the leverage of political elites domestically and to present the EU as an impotent actor.
This article aims to map and periodize memory regimes in North Macedonia, with the divergent set of Ilinden commemorations epitomizing the developments and critical changes in the period from 2001 to 2018. Ilinden is still by and large considered to be pivotal for Macedonian nation-building, structuring the long Macedonian 20th century and serving as the most prominent state holiday. The commemorative narratives, understood as political strategies with the aim of taking a position towards and interpreting the past, establish a set of patterns, groups or trajectories which will be argued to be principal in the creation of official memory in North Macedonia. Herein, the set of 18 Republic Day/Ilinden commemorations will be reconstructed, triangulating the analysis of Macedonian media outlines, institutional discourses and political rhetoric, and finally, it will be discussed as a tripartite periodization model, drawing upon the theoretical framework offered by .
This article fills a gap in theories of forced migration. We present a new model, motivated by specific features of forced migration during a conflict which do not feature in existing migration models. We incorporate the relative deprivation hypothesis and a new “restoration” hypothesis in order to better explain forced migration as a two-stage process, which starts with conflict and, in some cases, forced displacement in the first stage and continues with emigration in the second stage. A particular feature of our model is that it predicts self-selection of highly skilled individuals into international migration as a result of conflict, since the “restoration” hypothesis assumes that individuals with higher income before conflict are most under pressure to restore their previous income through emigration. The model used in this article to analyse conflict-induced migration could also motivate further modelling to better match the characteristics of migration induced by natural disasters (which are expected to increase in the future as a result of climate change) as well as by large development projects.