This contribution tries to explain why Jews were persecuted earlier or more fiercely in territories annexed by a state during World War II than in the mainland of that state. The case-studies covered are Nazi Germany, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and the USSR. It is argued that internationally, similar policies of incorporation, especially the replacement of existing elites and the process of bringing in new settlers, worked against the Jews. Aside from focusing on governmental policies, the contribution also sketches the manner in which individual actions by state functionaries (who did not merely implement state policies) and by non-state actors had adverse effects on the Jewish population, impacting their survival chances. Finally, the article places the persecution of Jews in annexed areas in the context of the concerted violence conducted, at the same time, against other ethnically defined, religious, and social groups.
The battles of the First World War created a fundamentally new impression of war. Total warfare, the use of propaganda, chemical weapons, and every possible other measure to ensure victory defined the event that should later be known as the »Great War«, because it caused so many deaths and much suffering. The catastrophe also had an impact on the humanities, which inevitably had to deal with the processing of an event that seemed to be too big to be clearly understood by the human mind. The present volume covers several interdisciplinary perspectives by dealing with the impact of the war on the humanities during and after the conflict that deeply influenced the mindset of the 20th century.
The series (Hi)Stories is an English publication project that deals with interdisciplinary questions in the field of War Studies.
Its main purpose is to highlight issues relating to war not only from a historical, but especially from a cultural perspective. It therefore focusses on the relationship between war and factors such as geography, gender roles, literature, art etc. Focusing on the papers delivered at a number of international conferences (e.g. War and Geography 2015, War and Rape 2016), the new series is an international forum for the publication of qualitative research works (dissertations or habilitations).
English was chosen as the language of publication in order to secure and reach an international audience and to provide a global network of researchers in the field of War Studies.
In der deutschen Öffentlichkeit sind die unfassbaren Verbrechen der deutschen Besatzer in der Sowjetunion während des Zweiten Weltkrieges nach wie vor kaum präsent.
Führende Experten und einer der letzten Zeitzeugen des Holocaust in der Ukraine stellen die unterschiedlichen Aspekte der deutschen Besatzungszeit in der Sowjetunion vor. Sie fragen nach den Massenverbrechen, aber auch nach den Reaktionen der Bevölkerung. Wie sah der Alltag in den besetzten Gebieten aus? Welche spezifischen Erfahrungen machten Männer und Frauen? Welche Überlebens- und Widerstandsstrategien gab es? Was wissen wir über die Partisanenbewegung und über die Kollaboration? Wie erinnern sich die Menschen an die deutsche Besatzung? So wird erstmals das Thema in seiner ganzen Breite erfasst und dargelegt, wie der Krieg und die Okkupation bis heute nachwirken.
Diese Festschrift ist dem Historiker Stig Förster gewidmet, der sich insbesondere in der modernen Militärgeschichte und der Imperialismusforschung einen Namen gemacht hat.
Mit der Betonung globaler Prozesse und dem Einbezug außereuropäischer Akteure nahm Förster bereits zu Beginn der 1990er Jahre einige der Kernelemente der Globalgeschichte vorweg. In diesem Band werden seine beiden Forschungsgebiete durch namhafte Autorinnen und Autoren zusammengebracht. Im Zentrum stehen Kriege und Machtkonflikte in ihren globalen Dimensionen. Diese werden nicht nur als Auseinandersetzungen zwischen Staatsoberhäuptern und ihren Armeen verstanden, sondern in ihrem jeweiligen gesellschaftlichen Umfeld situiert.
With the end of the Second World War, all its violence, war crimes, and sufferings as well as the atomic threat of the Cold War period, societies began to gradually remember wars in a different way. The glorious or honorable element of the age of nationalism was transformed into a rather dunning one, while peace movements demanded an end of war itself.
To analyze these changes and to show how war was remembered after the end of the Second World War, the present volume assembles the work of international specialists who deal with this particular question from different national and international perspectives. The contributions analyze the role of soldiers, perpetrators, and victims of different conflicts, including the Second World War. They show which motivational settings led to the erection of war memorials reflecting the values and historical traditions of the second half of the 20th and the 21st centuries. Thus, this interdisciplinary volume explores how war is commemorated and how its actors and victims are perceived around the globe.
War Memorials were an important element of nation building, for the invention of traditions, and the establishment of historical traditions. Especially nationalist remembrance in the late 19th century and the memory of the First World War stimulated a memorial boom in the period which the present book is focusing on.
The remembrance of war is nothing particularly new in history, since victories in decisive battles had been of interest since ancient times. However, the age of nationalism and the First World War triggered a new level of war remembrance that was expressed in countless memorials all over the world. The present volume presents the research of international specialists from different disciplines within the Humanities, whose research is dealing with the role of war memorials for the remembrance of conflicts like the First World War and their perceptions within the analyzed societies. It will be shown how memorials – in several different chronological and geographical contexts – were used to remember the dead, remind the survivors, and warn the descendants.
Japan has always been fascinating for foreign observers. This volume will show, how its military has been perceived abroad and what image about the Japanese Army existed between 1853 and 1945 in the minds of those who read and heard stories from the Far East.
When forcefully opened by a US mission in 1853, Japan was transformed by its ruling elites into a strong nation state, whose military and political forces wanted to avoid a colonization by foreign powers. Therefore, Japan’s military capacities were of special interest and the army and navy were westernized very fast. Japanese soldiers became known as “Asia’s Prussians”, and were often described as “gallant enemies”. This image, however, should rapidly change after the First World War. During the battles in China since 1937, and the Pacific since 1941, the Japanese soldiers were often referred to as “devils.“ This volume will take a closer look at the images of Japan’s military abroad to show how these images were created, how they changed and what stimulated the differences with regard to the foreign perception of Japan and its military between 1853 and 1945.