This article surveys both canon and imperial law for legislation regarding Jews and Judaism until the 8th cent. C. E. Judaism was recognized by Roman law as a religio licita and Jewish rights were thus protected. But with the rise of Christianity to the official religion of the Roman empire imperial legislation disadvantaged Jews increasingly. Nevertheless Judaism remained a religio licita and different from pagans or heretics, Jews retained certain rights and a limited protection of the Roman state. The legislative situation in Roman imperial law reflects Christian canon law.