This article seeks to reconstruct the military actions and the diplomatic initiatives connected with the first Swedish occupation of Vilnius, the capital of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, during the Great Northern War.
In this study primary sources were used – the correspondence of the chief leaders of the army of the Lithuanian Republicans. This allowed a revision of previous assertions found in historiography, which were usually based on the diaries and memoirs of contemporaries.
In the 17th century, as contacts between citizens of England, which was gaining increasing importance in Europe, and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) intensified, the phenomenon of the image of Lithuania in English and Scottish societies, as well as the level of their knowledge about the GDL, became more important. The issue of mentioning Lithuania in West European historical sources and the related issue of the image of Lithuania in the region in the 16th–17th centuries has already been analysed in Lithuania, albeit not thoroughly enough. However, the question of the image of Lithuania in English publications in the 17th–18th centuries still requires more detailed analysis. This article discusses Lithuania-related facts that could have been familiar not only to the narrow circle of people that were in close contact with the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, but also to wider well-read English and Scottish society. The few educated members of English society who had an interest in learning more about Lithuania had access to publications in various languages published in different countries. However, this article dwells almost exclusively on publications in the English language dating from the 17th century that facilitated the rendering of knowledge and opinions about Lithuania to a much wider circle of people who read in the English language.
This article deals with the rise of the manifestation of servilism among the Polish-Lithuanian nobility in relation to Russia in the first quarter of the eighteenth century. Although the entire rule of Augustus II (1697–1733) is investigated in this study, the main attention is focused on the period after the 1719 Treaty of Vienna, when the King attempted to reduce his dependence on Russia, while the latter energetically began forming a clique of adherents among the Commonwealth’s noblemen to compromise royal policy. In this activity Russia was most successful among the nobility of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. This work analyzes Russian diplomats’ methods, including bribery and intimidation.
This research is based on documents from the Archive of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire.