Author: Olesia Isaiuk


The article deals with ideological settings, ways and means of establishing rules of mutual coexistence between the Red Army and the UPA. The main problem is the balance between the ideological setups of the parties and the pragmatic requirements of reality. Both sides were forced to balance between plans and past representations based on ideological foundations and, ultimately, to adjust their behavior under the influence of the realities of the situation. Transformation took place at two levels simultaneously: the institutional, expressed in the correction of officially defined tactics and personal, which manifested itself at the level of personal, often casual contacts between representatives of both parties. The chronological framework of the study covers the spring–summer period of 1944, and territorially Lviv and Ternopil regions. The choice of territorial and chronological boundaries is due to the understanding that the region was particularly important in administrative terms and became an arena of protracted battles, which provoked the Red Army continued occupation of in this area.

In: Violent Resistance
From the Baltics to Central, Eastern and South Eastern Europe 1944–1956
The end of the Second World war did not mean the end of violence for many regions in Eastern Europe. The establishment of Communist-led governments often met not only civil but also armed resistance. These actions were taken by partisan groups and paramilitary forces which in some cases had been formed already during the war to support axis forces. In other cases – like Poland’s Armia Krajowa – they fought Nazi and Soviet occupiers with the same fervour. The aims of the fighters were the end of Communist rule and – like in the Baltic region – independence from the Soviet Union. Difficulties in accessing sources and research taboos as well as a focus on other aspects of the Cold War are reasons why violent resistance in Europe after the Second World War is a topic yet rather underestimated and comparably little investigated by historiography. This book gives a comprehensive first overview of the ultimately futile attempts to end the rule of Moscow and her proxies.