This article discusses the creation of the Yugoslav state security OZNa-UDBa by the Communist Partisans of Josip Broz ‘Tito’. Gaining the upper hand in the Yugoslav civil war of 1941–1945, OZNa-UDBa learned from its wartime experiences to successfully function well into the postwar period. The organisation was so successful that it needed to conjure up enemies of the state in order to remain viable. Eventually, the hubris adopted by the agents of OZNa-UDBa caught up to the security agency and killed it along with the state it protected.
The end of the Second World war did not mean the end of violence for many regions in Eastern Europe. The establishment of Communist-led governments often met not only civil but also armed resistance. These actions were taken by partisan groups and paramilitary forces which in some cases had been formed already during the war to support axis forces. In other cases – like Poland’s Armia Krajowa – they fought Nazi and Soviet occupiers with the same fervour. The aims of the ﬁghters were the end of Communist rule and – like in the Baltic region – independence from the Soviet Union. Diﬃculties in accessing sources and research taboos as well as a focus on other aspects of the Cold War are reasons why violent resistance in Europe after the Second World War is a topic yet rather underestimated and comparably little investigated by historiography. This book gives a comprehensive ﬁrst overview of the ultimately futile attempts to end the rule of Moscow and her proxies.