INTRODUCTION REX A. WADE (Fairfax, VA, USA) GENERATIONS IN RUSSIAN AND SOVIETHISTORY "0 my son Absalom! my son, my son Absalom! would God I might die for thee, 0 Absalom my son, my son!" Second Samuel 18: 33 "Man is incapable of useful thoughts ' after the age of twenty-five years." Unnamed
University Press, 2001). Weiner’s focus on Vinnytsa reveals
convincingly the extent to which occupation, collaboration, and postwar reconstruction were entangled at the level of the citizenry itself. On the centrality of the war to Russian and Soviethistory, see Stephen Lovell, The Shadow of War: Russia
policy regarding the family and gender are shown, where
it proved impossible to unambiguously apply ‘conservative-liberal’ or ‘tradition-
al-liberal’ distinctions in both policy and reality.
KEYWORDS: gender equality, law, Soviet society, social history, Soviethistory.
Soviet propaganda constantly
Nicholas B. Breyfogle, ed., Eurasian Environments: Nature and Ecology in Imperial Russia and SovietHistory (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2018), 424 pp., $34.95 (pb), 9780822965633.
In this dive into the environmental history of Russia and the Soviet Union, in case after case
Although students of the Soviet period have long been fascinated with criminality, few works have studied courts and common criminals on the basis of trial records, especially during the nep. Aside from scholarly treatments of show trials, the reasoning behind judicial decisions and criminal pleas has been left to the imagination of Sovietologists. This gap is addressed by examining case files involving the primary form of appeal available to Soviet convicts: cassation. After detailing the evolution of Soviet cassation from its origins in the French Revolution and contextualizing its place in the Soviet justice system, this article embarks on a close reading of convicts’ pleas, prosecutors’ reports, and judges’ written decisions in cassational cases. Cassational appeals are examined to determine how different seats of power within the judiciary sparred over verdicts. Judicial decisions of cassational cases are cross-referenced with legal codes and legislation to determine how Soviet judges applied the law, particularly when considering the social backgrounds of appellants. From the outlook of criminals themselves, the wording of their appeals is analyzed to determine how they understood the law, Soviet society, and what they thought they needed to say to gain redemption. Ultimately, this paper explores how individuals brought before courts understood Soviet power and justice through the lens of criminal appeals during the infancy of the Soviet Union.
R O N A L D G R I G O R SUNY (Ann Arbor, MI, USA) 1 ON IDEOLOGY, SUBJECTIVITY, AND MODERNITY: DISPARATE THOUGHTS ABOUT DOING SOVIETHISTORY 1. This article is the product of two successive roundtables at the annual conventions of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies
SHEILA FITZPATRICK (Chicago, U.S.A.) EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION: PETITIONS AND DENUNCIATIONS IN RUSSIAN AND SOVIETHISTORY1 Historians of prerevolutionary Russia, particularly Muscovy, have long been interested in petitions2 and denunciations.3 As far as the Soviet period is concerned, however, both
B O O K R E V I E W S / C O M P T E S R E N D U S Richard Pipes. R u s s i a O b s e r v e d : C o l l e c t e d E s s a y s on R u s s i a n a n d SovietHistory. Boulder, CO: W e s t v i e w Press, 1989. 280 pp. Russian and East European studies in this country would n o t have developed
regarding what has remained one of the great mysteries of Soviethistory for more than three-quarters of a century. The fantastical stories of duplicity concocted for the Show Trials first of Zinoviev and Kamenev, then Bukharin and his allies, were dismissed by both Khrushchevite reformers and Western
The subject of this article is the collectivization of agriculture in Soviet Udmurtia at the turn of the 1930s. Situated in the Urals, Udmurtia was an autonomous region, largely agricultural, and with a developing industrial center, Izhevsk, as capital. The titular nationality of the region, the Udmurts, represented slightly more than 50% of the total inhabitants, while the rest was made up by Russians and other national minorities. Udmurts were mostly peasants and concentrated in the countryside, whereas city-dwellers and factory workers were mostly Russians. Due to these and other circumstances, collectivization in Udmurtia was carried out in a very specific way. The campaign began here in 1928, one year before than in the rest of the Union, and had possibly the highest pace in the country, with 76% of collectivized farms by 1933. The years 1928–1931 were the highest point of the campaign, when the most opposition and the most violence took place.
The local Party Committee put before itself the special task to carry out a revolutionary collectivization campaign in the Udmurt countryside, which should have been a definitive solution to its “national” backwardness and to all its problems, from illiteracy to trachoma, from syphilis to the strip system (that is, each family worked on small “strips” of land far from each other). The Party Committee failed to exert much support from the peasant Udmurt masses, which stayed at best inert to collectivization propaganda, or opposed it openly. However, the back of the Udmurt peasantry was finally broken, and Udmurtia was totally collectivized by the end of the 1930s.