R O N A L D G R I G O R SUNY (Ann Arbor, MI, USA) 1 ON IDEOLOGY, SUBJECTIVITY, AND MODERNITY: DISPARATE THOUGHTS ABOUT DOING SOVIETHISTORY 1. This article is the product of two successive roundtables at the annual conventions of the American Association for the Advancement of Slavic Studies
regarding what has remained one of the great mysteries of Soviethistory for more than three-quarters of a century. The fantastical stories of duplicity concocted for the Show Trials first of Zinoviev and Kamenev, then Bukharin and his allies, were dismissed by both Khrushchevite reformers and Western
SHEILA FITZPATRICK (Chicago, U.S.A.) EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION: PETITIONS AND DENUNCIATIONS IN RUSSIAN AND SOVIETHISTORY1 Historians of prerevolutionary Russia, particularly Muscovy, have long been interested in petitions2 and denunciations.3 As far as the Soviet period is concerned, however, both
B O O K R E V I E W S / C O M P T E S R E N D U S Richard Pipes. R u s s i a O b s e r v e d : C o l l e c t e d E s s a y s on R u s s i a n a n d SovietHistory. Boulder, CO: W e s t v i e w Press, 1989. 280 pp. Russian and East European studies in this country would n o t have developed
The subject of this article is the collectivization of agriculture in Soviet Udmurtia at the turn of the 1930s. Situated in the Urals, Udmurtia was an autonomous region, largely agricultural, and with a developing industrial center, Izhevsk, as capital. The titular nationality of the region, the Udmurts, represented slightly more than 50% of the total inhabitants, while the rest was made up by Russians and other national minorities. Udmurts were mostly peasants and concentrated in the countryside, whereas city-dwellers and factory workers were mostly Russians. Due to these and other circumstances, collectivization in Udmurtia was carried out in a very specific way. The campaign began here in 1928, one year before than in the rest of the Union, and had possibly the highest pace in the country, with 76% of collectivized farms by 1933. The years 1928–1931 were the highest point of the campaign, when the most opposition and the most violence took place.
The local Party Committee put before itself the special task to carry out a revolutionary collectivization campaign in the Udmurt countryside, which should have been a definitive solution to its “national” backwardness and to all its problems, from illiteracy to trachoma, from syphilis to the strip system (that is, each family worked on small “strips” of land far from each other). The Party Committee failed to exert much support from the peasant Udmurt masses, which stayed at best inert to collectivization propaganda, or opposed it openly. However, the back of the Udmurt peasantry was finally broken, and Udmurtia was totally collectivized by the end of the 1930s.
specialists wishing there had been more. Bruce F. Adams University o f Louisville R. W. Davies. SovietHistory in the G o r b a c h e v Revolution. Bloomingon: Indiana University Press, 1989. viii, 232 pp. $35.00 cloth; $12.95 paper. Soviet H i s t o r i a n s a n d P e r e s t r o i k a : The F i r s t P h a
period, hence it is proper to regard him as fundamentally a Soviet historian, despite the fact that he continued to write important books into the 1990s. Clearly he belongs to Soviet historiography; to understand him and his work, we must first have a clear picture of Soviethistory writing.
В статье на основе материалов архивно-следственных дел анализируется деятельность сионисткой партии и Гашомер-Гациор в Воронеже. Архивно-следственные дела – особый исторический источник советского периода, в нем содержатся материалы социобиографического характера и документы судебного процесса. Сионисты отбывали ссылку в городе после их осуждения в различных регионах страны. Большинство из них были осуждены на Украине. Их аресты в Воронеже были следствием продолжавшейся в Советском Союзе борьбы с сионизмом. Так как они уже были репрессированы ранее органами ОГПУ. Их обвинили в создание нелегальных кассы взаимопомощи и библиотеки. Лидером сионистов был Давид Браиловский. Спецификой дела дела Гашомер-Гациор 1932 года стало обвинение Наума Бройтмана в организации «итальянской забастовки». Введение в научный оборот материалов архивно-следственных дел позволило сформулировать автору ряд выводов.
and confounded academic conventions. Th e three books under review here, written by distinguished British specialists on Soviethistory, successfully convey the international sweep and complexity of the Communist phenomenon. While the focus is on the rise and fall of the Soviet Union, the authors also