Belarus has often been neglected by both political scientists and other observers. A relatively small state, it is also sometimes seen as uninteresting politically, since it seems to be regarded as ‘Russia’s younger brother,’ a willing partner of Moscow. 1 However, as this paper will show
Belarus is a special case among the post-Soviet countries in Europe. In contrast to the democratic (Baltic States) or semi-democratic (Russia, Moldova or Ukraine) tendencies in other countries, Belarus has been characterized as a fully-fledged authoritarian regime personified in
suggests that democratic knowledge is an important variable to account for in hybrid and authoritarian regimes such as Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. Given that research on Ukraine and Belarus is particularly scarce, these cases also allow for testing of ‘the generalizability of the Soviet legacy’. 15
We have witnessed a remarkable phenomenon: the emergence of a new political force in Belarus that has heralded a new national identity. Despite the arrest of thousands of people, including two of the main opposition candidates in the August 2020 presidential election, and despite
Empire. Under Catherine II (r. 1762–1796), whose regime saw Uniates as too susceptible to “dangerous” Roman Catholic influences, most Uniate parishes in Ukrainian provinces were brought under Orthodox jurisdiction in 1794–1796, but the remaining Uniates in the partitioned lands of Belarus and western
im Schatten von Tschernobyl. Umwelt- und Energiepolitik im gesellschaftlichen Wandel von Belarus und Ukraine (Münster, 1999), с. 186.
3) Ср. David R. Marples, „Чернобыль. В предверии 25-й годовщины аварии.‟ Перекрёстки 1-2 (2010), c. 120.
4) Следует отметить, что существовали мнения
of legitimizing his rule.
In justifying my argument I compare Putinʼs political identification with another post-Soviet ruler whose state represents a consistent authoritarian populist trajectory since the collapse of the Soviet Union, namely Aleksander Lukashenkoʼs Belarus. In the conclusion I
Introduction: The Analytical Context
In 2008 the government of Belarus signed a contract with the now defunct British public relations firm Bell Pottinger. Belarus sought to enhance its image abroad, not least the reputation of its hardline president Alyaksandr Lukashenka. Indeed, for a
THE PLACE OF PAST EVENTS IN INTERNATIONAL
(Lithuanian Institute of History)
ABSTRACT This article presents an analysis of the role memory culture plays in
information wars. Based on the examples of Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine, Poland and
Belarus, it finds
how to clarify my analysis. Orange Harvest?: Women’s Activism and Civil Society in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia since 2004 * Alexandra Hrycak Reed College, Portland, OR, USA Abstract Rising authoritarianism throughout post-Soviet countries has met with responses ranging from small-scale revolts to