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characteristic is the fact that descisions regarding external policies of the member states take place on two levels, namely supranational and national. Poland, which is a member state of the EU, has limited sovereignty as far as making decisions about its political relations with other countries (and obviously

In: The Kaliningrad Region

the First World War, the trafficking of women was already seen as a considerable social problem that was profoundly connected with the viability of the Polish nation ( Jakubczak 2020 : 8–9). Hence, the fight against trafficking in interwar Poland became deeply intertwined with the idea of a morally

Open Access
In: East Central Europe

Poland by the local population of the Polesie Voivodeship (which currently corresponds mainly to the Brest region). This region of inter-war Poland is notable for the consciousness of its population. 1 The majority of inhabitants described themselves merely as “locals”, 2 and for the most part were

In: The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review
Author:

Over 800,000 people left Western Ukraine for Poland in 1944–47, including 105,000 from Lwów/L’viv. 3 Paradoxically, the Soviet state that had carried out this project also had some of the most tightly patrolled borders in the world and would later restrict freedom of travel even with its socialist

In: The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review
Author:

Matejasz Kwiek (ca. 1887–1937). A “Baron” and “Leader of the Gypsy Nation” in Interbellum Poland Introduction The issues related to the activities of the Kwiek clan Gypsy “kings” is one of the best researched and developed questions concerning the life of the Roma in Poland during the

Open Access
In: Roma Portraits in History

decision stems from the fact that Gypsies in Poland are mistreated and persecuted to such an extent that only their own representatives in the legislative chambers can act to regulate the issues that involve their people. Michałak-Michailescu and the Gypsies want to implement a land reform in order to make

Open Access
In: Roma Voices in History

other regions in Poland, and illustrates aspects of their daily life. KEYWORDS: Vilnius; Poland; interwar; unemployment; demography; urban. The first half of the 20th century was rather difficult for the in- habitants of Vilnius, due to various hardships: wars, epidemics, famine, various shortages

Open Access
In: Lithuanian Historical Studies
Author:

of Sciences) ABSTRACT The article discusses how post-1569 relations between Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were presented in various written materials produced in Britain in the late-16th and 17th centuries. It analyses both the materials produced by and for the court or professional

Open Access
In: Lithuanian Historical Studies
Author:

in Russian Poland), Kruk lived and died in what Timothy Snyder, with a self-described neologism, 2 has called the “bloodlands.” This territory, stretching “from central Poland to western Russia, through Ukraine, Belarus, and the Baltic States,” is the subject of Snyder's eponymous book. 3 Here, he

In: Journal of Modern Russian History and Historiography
Author:

with huge festivities around the country. As part of the ceremony, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( CPSU ) Leonid Brezhnev made a two-day, event-filled trip to Poland. Brezhnev visited not only the capital city of Warsaw, but also the industrial region of Upper Silesia

In: The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review