fundamental and indispensable element of the law regulating enlargements: it is the key set of procedural essentials that enables the Union to promote and guarantee lasting change in the Member States-to-be, following a pre-defined, relatively open and transparent process. Conditionality thus provides a
This article presents an analysis of Soviet law on the family which was valid in Lithuania from 1940, in order to ascertain how it reflected gender equality, how (or if ) it was formed, the legal measures the state harnessed in order to create family and gender relation models in various areas of life, and what kind of family and gender policy formed as a result. The law is contextualised in this paper by immersing it in the social reality of its time. This allows us to determine what norms and provisions determined the political and legal resolutions of the Soviet authorities, and to discuss their influence on society. The two most important periods in Soviet gender policy are distinguished. Initially revolutionary and radical in Lithuania, with the aim of changing society to realise its goals, after the 1950s, state policy became more reactive, and adapted to the changed, modernised society and its needs. This paper proposes to see changes to women’s situation during the Soviet period not as emancipation, but as (double) mobilisation. The reasons for the stagnation in masculinity in Soviet law and policy, for not keeping up with or adapting to the rapidly changing social reality, are also analysed. The contradictions in Soviet policy regarding the family and gender are shown, where it proved impossible to unambiguously apply ‘conservative-liberal’ or ‘traditional- liberal’ distinctions in both policy and reality.
described Amos 3:12 appears in Exod 22:12. 58 This law is part of a larger group of stipulations in Exod 22:9–12 that describes the conditions in which a shepherd is responsible or not responsible for damage incurred to a flock that was entrusted to his care. 59
כי־יתן אישׁ אל־רעהוּ חמוֹר אוֹ־שׁוֹר אוֹ
’ or ‘transfer of best practices’) and the consolidation of the state of the rule of law in Russian everyday life. There is already a considerable amount of research and commentary on Russia’s administrative and legal systems, which underlines both the importance of the political culture for Russia
to combat it, many officials still were not sure exactly what extremism meant, or how to define it.
Despite this fact, lawmakers in summer 2002 passed the law “On Combatting Extremist Activity” (“ O protivodeistvii ekstremizma ”).
Article 1 of the law provided a long list of
The Rule of Law ( rl ) is one of the main principles of the current Bulgarian Constitution (Art. 4), according to which Bulgaria is a Rechtsstaat ,
as long as the country is governed in compliance with the Constitution and the laws, and the rights of the
How does the European Union ( eu ) affect the development of the rule of law in accession and membership countries? This fundamental question has been debated by political scientists and legal scholars in a controversial way. The first generation of Europeanization scholars
sacrificial materials in Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. 3 When parallels are lacking in the pentateuchal materials, some scholars have pivoted to texts like Jubilees, 4 and even into Tannaitic rabbinic literature. 5 Still others, when parallel laws are not easily found, posit that the instructions in
Rule of law is a complex, “essentially contested” ( Waldron 2002 : 173) concept. Although widely recognised as one of the most important political ideals today ( Tamanaha 2004 ; Waldron 2008), “the benchmark of political legitimacy” (Waldron 2008: 1) that societies of today should