liberal pensionreform, viewing it as the only viable solution to the problem of old-age pension security. However, institutional legacies, which manifested in the form of electoral expectations and veto players defending the old order, prevented substantive reforms.
As a result, during the 1990s
wide range of issue areas has been met with new tools to contain it. The limited protests after the 2018 pensionreform demonstrated state capacity to bound mobilization to local actions by controlling the organizational capacity of trade unions and systemic parties, especially the KPRF . 25 As the
Andrea Chandler. Shocking Mother Russia: Democratization, Social Rights, a n d PensionReform in Russia, 1990-2001. Toronto: University o f Toronto Press, 2004. xii, 246pp. $60.00 Cdn. At a time when pensions, social benefits (lgoty) and social welfare are once again sub- ject to contentious
by newsbreaks, as will be showed below.
Figure 1 shows the distribution of publications (2010–2015) on pensionreform. The majority of relevant articles on pensionreform were published in 2011–2013 (44 publications in 2011, 61 in 2012 and 64 in 2013). The key aspects of discussion were the
reform. Th is part of the book concludes with a clear table outlining pensionreform eﬀ orts between 1990 and 2006. Chapter ﬁ ve approaches the importance of growth and the creation of jobs within the EU and its member states, and explores the labor market in Greece. Job creation has been one of the top
nents. Herein lies an important argument: that economic liberalism fails when it discounts culture, history and values. Indeed, it was Putiris recognition o f the symbolic importance o f the pension system, she argues, that enabled him to implement a new round o f pensionreform in 2001. Here
pension system. More than any of the other reforms, it constituted a watershed in Russia’s welfare state retrenchment.
The pensionreforms affected different categories of citizens – current pensioners, those nearing retirement, current older and younger workers – differently. Younger workers are
Russia underwent a comprehensive pensionreform in 2002 that partially privatized the state pension system. At that point Russia transferred from a pay-as-you-go system in which active workers finance the pensions of current pensioners to a mixed system in which those born after 1967
the early 2000s,
the failure of the pensionreform launched during the same period
is a telling example. Changes in the tax system benefited the Russian state and its rulers soon after their inception, whereas the pensionreform assumed benefits only in the long run, and generated
Mdtyis: Facts and Recoflections (Tamás Bdcskai) ' . No. 6 PERMA.NENT PENSIONREFORM? Foreword by the guest editor (Bod Peter) . Fultz, Elaine: PensionReform in Hungary and Poland. A Comparative Review Augusztinovics, Maria, Robert Ivan Gal, Agnes Matits, Levente Mdt6, Andrds Simonovits and Janos Stahl