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1 The Relevance of Scientific Research In the modern international system, there are processes that shift the states’ focus from the use of hard, military mechanisms of ensuring and achieving international power, to the involvement of soft power tools in the foreign policy arsenal. Today, a

In: Russian Politics

foreign countries. Very often these appeals can be approached through the concept of soft power that represents an alternative to the realist and territorially-determined ways of thinking about international relations, including their geopolitical component. The idea of soft power itself stems from a

In: Russian Politics
Author: Matthias Becker


Did early Christian church leaders and political rulers share common characteristics? By reading the First Epistle to Timothy through the lens of Greek and Roman “mirrors for princes” (specula principum) written in the first and early second centuries AD, this article intends to make a new contribution to this issue. The study’s interpretative focus lies on the idealized depiction of Timothy as a role model for early Christian officeholders as well as on the qualifications for bishops and deacons (1 Tim 3:1–13). The comparison of the features of the ideal ruler with those of ideal church leaders shows that central elements of the ecclesiology of First Timothy tap into the Greco-Roman discourse concerning ideal rulership. Yet not only that, it also helps to understand that the power that is undeniably attributed to officeholders is ultimately meant to be a soft power that serves the cause of “preservation” and “salvation” (σωτηρία).

In: Biblische Zeitschrift

in world politics. Yet another – “ soft ” – component of power (“power of attraction’) was introduced in the pioneering works of Nye. 19 Since then the “softpower approach has become very popular in political analysis and academic literature, and produced various examples of empirical research

In: Russian Politics

of the Apes and other Hollywood heroes, which was so jarring to the collective, communal nature of Soviet society. Brodsky argues that trophy films, like Tarzan, represented the positive aspects of individualism and seemed to present proof of individualism’s superiority. 8 Soft Power

In: The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review

used at the same time. Almost all the countries in the region started to massively exploit the past as a means of soft power only in the 21st century. This tool is especially significant in Poland and Russia, being used less often in Lithuania and Ukraine, and hardly at all in Belarus. The

Open Access
In: Lithuanian Historical Studies
Author: Tamar Qeburia

offer a thorough and evidence-based critique of soft power relations, which are often described as aggression-free and undisruptive ways of influencing cultural, religious, economic and social dynamics of South Caucasus. Victoria Hudson’s contribution examines the Orthodox church as a major channel of

In: Caucasus Survey

Policy  88 Tatiana Romashko Reform of the Russian Healthcare System and the Foreign Dimension of Russian Health Policies  114 Anastasia Stepanovich Beyond Geopolitics: Russian Soft Power, Conservatism, and Biopolitics  135 Andrey Makarychev

In: Russian Politics
Author: Lukas Anderson

largely been overlooked since the Iranian Revolution. Additionally, focusing on cultural diplomacy elevates a component of soft power seldom examined in qualitative research. This approach may bring to light a set of state preferences indicative of Iran’s future behavior in the region to its east and

In: Central Asian Affairs

own distinctive values, tensions with the West have inevitably heightened. These distinctive values derive in no small measure from the Russian Orthodox Church. Russia’s Conservative Restoration: Soft Power and the Orthodox Church After he was elected as president for a third time in 2012

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In: Russian Politics